## From Sets toQuarks:

`Deriving the Standard Model plus Gravitation from Simple Operations on Finite Setsby Tony Smith Table of Contents: Chapter 1 - Introduction. Chapter 2 - From Sets to Clifford Algebras. Chapter 3 - Octonions and E8 lattices. Chapter 4 - E8 spacetime and particles. Chapter 5 - HyperDiamond Lattices. Chapter 6 - Spacetime and Internal Symmetry Space. Chapter 7 - Feynman Checkerboards. Chapter 8 - Charge = Amplitude to Emit Gauge Boson.                  What Factors Determine Charge?                      Volume of Target Internal Symmetry Space.                      Volume of Link to Target.                      Effective Mass Factors.                 Gravity.                 Color Force.                      Renormalization.                 Weak Force.                 Electromagnetism.Chapter 9 - Mass = Amplitude to Change Direction. Chapter 10 - Protons, Pions, and Physical Gravitons. Appendix A - Errata for Earlier Papers. References.`

## Charge = Amplitude to Emit GaugeBoson.

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### What Factors Determine Charge?

The Discrete HyperDiamond GeneralizedFeynman Checkerboard and ContinuousManifolds are related by QuantumSuperposition:
` In the HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard modelthe charge of a particle is the amplitude for a particleto emit a gauge boson of the relevant force.Neutral particles do not emit gauge bosons. Force strengths are probalilities, or squares of amplitudesfor emission of gauge bosons, or squares of charges,so that calculation of charges is equivalent to calculationof force strengths. Three factors determine the probability for emission ofa gauge boson from an origin spacetime vertex to a target vertex: the part of the Internal Symmetry Spaceof the target spacetime vertex that is available for the gauge bosonto go to from the origin vertex; the volume of the spacetime link that is available for the gaugeboson to go through from the origin vertex to the target vertex; and an effective mass factor for forces(such as the Weak force and Gravity)that, in the low-energy ranges of our experiments,are carried effectively by gauge bosons that are notmassless high-energy. In the D4-D5-E6 Lagrangian continuum versionof this physics model, force strength probabilities are calculatedin terms of relative volumes of bounded complex homogeneous domains andtheir Shilov boundaries. The relationship betweenthe D4-D5-E6 Lagrangian continuum approachandthe HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard discrete approachis that: the bounded complex homogeneous domains correspond toharmonic functions of generalized Laplaciansthat determine heat equations, or diffusion equations; while the amplitude to emit gauge bosons in theHyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard is a process thatis similar to diffusion, andtherefore also corresponds to a generalized Laplacian. Details of the D4-D5-E6 Lagrangian continuum approachcan be found on the World Wide Web at URLs http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/hep-ph/9501252which is also available as a pdf file on this web site.  For the discrete HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboardapproach of this paper, the only free charge parameteris the charge of the Spin(5) gravitons in theMacDowell-Mansouri formalism of Gravity. Note thatthese Spin(5) gravitons are NOT the ordinary spin-2gravitons of the low-energy region in which we live.The charge of the Spin(5) gravitons is taken to be unity, 1,so that its force strength is also unity, 1.All other force strengths are determined as ratioswith respect to the Spin(5) gravitons and each other. The four forces of the HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboardmodel are Gravity, the Color force, the Weak force,and Electromagnetism. The charge of each force is the amplitude forone of its gauge bosons to be emitted from a given originvertex of the spacetime HyperDiamond latticeand go to a neighboring target vertex. The force strength of each force is the square of thecharge amplitude, or the probablility forone of its gauge bosons to be emitted from a given originvertex of the spacetime HyperDiamond latticeand go to a neighboring target vertex. The HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard model calculationsare actually done for force strengths, or probablilities,because it is easier to calculate probablilities. The force strength probability for a gauge boson tobe emitted from an origin spacetime HyperDiamond vertexand go to a target vertex is the product of three things: the volume Vol(MISforce) of the target Internal Symmetry Space,that is, the part of the Internal Symmetry Spaceof the target spacetime vertex that is available for the gauge bosonto go to from the origin vertex; the volume Vol(Qforce) / Vol(Dforce)^( 1 / mforce )  of the spacetime link to the target spacetime vertex from the origin vertex; and an effective mass factor 1 / Mforce^2 for forces(such as the Weak force and Gravity)that, in the low-energy ranges of our experiments,are carried effectively by gauge bosons that are notmassless high-energy SU(2) or Spin(5) gauge bosons,but are either massive Weak bosons due to the Higgs mechanismor effective spin-2 gravitons. For other forces, theeffective mass factor is taken to be unity, 1. Therefore, the force strength of a given force is alphaforce = (1 / Mforce^2 \)              ( Vol(MISforce))             ( Vol(Qforce) / Vol(Dforce)^( 1 / mforce )) The symbols have the following meanings: alphaforce represents the force strength; Mforce represents the effective mass; MISforce represents the part of the targetInternal Symmetry Space that is available for the gaugeboson to go to; Vol(MISforce) stands for volume of MISforce; Qforce represents the link from the originto the target that is available for the gaugeboson to go through; Vol(Qforce) stands for volume of Qforce; Dforce represents the complex bounded homogeneous domainof which Qforce is the Shilov boundary; mforce is the dimensionality of Qforce,which is 4 for Gravity and the Color force,2 for the Weak force (which therefore is considered tohave two copies of QW for each spacetime HyperDiamond link),and 1 for Electromagnetism (which therefore is considered tohave four copies of QE for each spacetime HyperDiamond link) Vol(Dforce)^( 1 / mforce )  stands fora dimensional normalization factor (to reconcile the dimensionalityof the Internal Symmetry Space of the target vertexwith the dimensionality of the link from the origin to thetarget vertex).  The force strength formula is stated in terms of continuum structures,such as volumes of manifolds, Shilov Boundaries, etc.,rather than in discrete terms. We recognize that a discrete versionof the calculations would be the fundamentally correct wayto calculate in the discrete HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboardmodel, but it is easier for us to look up relevant manifoldvolumes than to write and execute computer code to do thediscrete calculations. However, since the HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard latticespacing is Planck length and therefore much smallerthan the relevant distances for any experiments thatwe want to describe, we think that the continuum calculationsare good approximations of the fundamental discrete HyperDiamondFeynman Checkerboard calculations.    The geometric volumes needed for the calculations,mostly taken from Hua, are  Force       M      Vol(M)         Q        Vol(Q)     D       Vol(D)  gravity    S^4    8pi^2/3     RP^1xS^4    8pi^3/3    IV5     pi^5/2^4 5!  color      CP^2   8pi^2/3        S^5       4pi^3   B^6(ball)  pi^3/6  weak    S^2xS^2    2x4pi     RP^1xS^2      4pi^2     IV3      pi^3/24  e-mag      T^4     4x2pi          -           -       -         -  `

Note that I normalize the size of CP2so that its volume equals the volume of a unit 4-sphere S4. Myreasoning is that:

• the high-energy physical 8-dim spacetime breaks into two 4-dimensional structures, one a 4-dim Physical Spacetime and the other a 4-dim Internal Symmetry Space;
• if the 4-dim Physical Spacetime were Eulidean with S4 structure, it would inherit unit radius normalization from the parent 8-dim spacetime;
• the 4-dim Physical Spacetime regarded as Euclidean S4 should have volume equal to the CP2 4-dim Internal Symmetry Space, which is the other half of 8-dim spacetime; and
• I am effectively regarding CP2 as an S4 everywhere except for structure at infinity, which for CP2 = C2 u CP1 = C2 u C1 u {point} is CP1 = C1 u {point} and for S4 = R4 u {point} is {point}, and I am identifying C2 with R4 in the obvious way and saying that the structure at infinity only affects topological structure, not 4-dim volume.
• Atiyah and Berndt say in their paper Projective Planes, Serveri Varieties, and Spheres, math.DG/0206135, "... There are natural diffeomorphisms
• CP2 / O(1) = S4 ... S0 = O(1) ...
• HP2 / U(1) = S7 ... S1 = U(1) ...
• OP2 / Sp(1) = S13 ... S3 = Sp(1) ...".

Since O(1) = S0 = { -1 , +1 } I identify CP2 with S4 by that 2-to-1 mapping and consider that the volume of CP2 is the same as that of S4 with the difference being that the CP2 "boundary" of the volume is "twice as thick" as the S4 "boundary" of that volume.

My volume for CP2 differs from some others statedin the literature, such as the paper Volumes of Compact Manifolds,math-ph/0210033,by Boya, Sudarshan, and Tilma, where they say:

"... We present a systematic calculation of the volumes of compact manifolds which appear in physics: spheres, projective spaces, group manifolds and generalized flag manifolds. In each case we state what we believe is the most natural scale or normalization of the manifold, that is, the generalization of the unit radius condition for spheres. ... even ... when we have a manifold described as a product of spheres, the volume will not always be the product of the natural sphere volumes! ... Compact group manifolds are symmetric spaces and therefore the curvature is covariantly constant. There is a natural metric (induced from the Killing form in the Lie algebra) which generates an invariant measure (Haar, or more appropriately Hurwitz), but also there is a structure close to the product of odd spheres: the two criteria clash. ... We have not attempted to calculate the canonical volume for the E6,7,8 groups ...

... The sphere S(d-1) is a maximally symmetric space ... Explicit useful formulas for the even/odd cases are Vol(S(2n+1)) = 2 pi^n+1) / n! and Vol(S(2n)) = 2 (2 pi )^n / (2n-1)!! ...

... Notice the volume is maximal for S6, and lim( n -> infinity ) Vol(Sn) -> 0 ...

... Our convention for the radius R = 1 is extrinsic, that is, depends on the embedding S(d-1) in Rd; an equivalent intrinsic criterion is the length of the geodesic: geodesic length = 2 pi <-> radius R = 1 applicable because all geodesics in the sphere are equivalent ...

... the volume of the unit ball is ... Vol(S(n-1)) / n ...

... We shall define projective spaces as quotient of spheres, and we shall see that the natural scale for the geodesics is to have length pi, not 2 pi as in the spheres.

... We ... define the volume of CPn as a quotient

Vol(CPn) = Vol(S(2n+1)) / Vol(S1) = ( 2 pi^(n+1) / n! ) / ( 2 pi ) = pi^n / n!

... for n = 1 we have Vol(CP1) = pi, whereas CP1 = S3 / S1 = S2, and Vol(S2) = 4 pi: obviously the geodesic length of our CP1 is only pi, whereas the volume of the equivalent S2 space is 4 = 2x2 times as big ...

... We compute Vol(Spin(6)) = 2 x Vol(S1 x S2 x ... x S5) = 256 pi^9 / 3

whereas Vol(SU(4)) = sqrt(2) pi^9 / 3 even though SU(4) = Spin(6)! ...".

Note that N!! = N (N-2) (N-4) ... .

I got confused trying to compare their spherevolume formulas with thoseof Conway and Sloane, but Todd Tilma wasnice enough to explain to me by e-mail their equivalence by usingformulas such as

(2n+2) pi^(n+1) / (n+1)! = 2 (n+1) pi^(n+1) /(n+1)! = 2 pi^(n+1) / n!

I prefer a normalization that makes Vol(Spin(6)) =Vol(SU(4)). Also, using my approach gives Vol(CP1) = Vol(S2), which Ithink is natural because CP1 = S2. Further, I am more partial thanBoya, Sudarshan, and Tilma to the idea that a manifold that istopologically like a product of spheres should be normalized so thatits volume is the product of the volumes of those spheres.

` Using these numbers, the results of thecalculations are the relative force strengthsat the characteristic energy level of thegeneralized Bohr radius of each force:   Gauge     Force    Characteristic     Geometric       Total Group                 Energy            Force         Force                                        Strength      Strength  Spin(5)  gravity   approx 10^19 GeV       1         GGmproton^2                                                  approx 5 x 10^-39  SU(3)     color    approx 245 MeV      0.6286         0.6286  SU(2)      weak    approx 100 GeV      0.2535        GWmproton^2                                                  approx 1.05 x 10^-5  U(1)      e-mag     approx 4 KeV     1/137.03608    1/137.03608    The force strengths are given at the characteristicenergy levels of their forces, because the forcestrengths run with changing energy levels. The effect is particularly pronounced with the colorforce.  The color force strength was calculatedat various energies according to renormalization groupequations, with the following results:   Energy Level           Color Force Strength     245 MeV                  0.6286     5.3 GeV                  0.166      34 GeV                  0.121      91 GeV                  0.106    Shifman in a paper at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/hep-ph/9501222  has noted that Standard Model global fits at the Z peak,about 91 GeV, give a color force strength of about0.125 with LambdaQCD approx 500 MeV, whereas low energy results and lattice calculationsgive a color force strength at the Z peak of about0.11 with LambdaQCD approx 200 MeV.  In the remainder of this Chapter 8,we discuss further the concepts of Target Internal SymmetrySpace, Link to Target, and Effective Mass Factors,and then we discuss in more detail each of the four forces. In this HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard model,all force strengths are represented as ratios withrespect to the geometric force strength of Gravity(that is, the force strength of Gravity without usingthe Effective Mass factor).   `

### Volume of Target Internal SymmetrySpace.

The Discrete HyperDiamond GeneralizedFeynman Checkerboard and ContinuousManifolds are related by QuantumSuperposition:
`MISforce represents the part of the targetInternal Symmetry Space that is available for the gaugeboson to go to; and Vol(MISforce) stands for volume of MISforce. What part of the target Internal Symmetry Space isavailable for the gauge boson to go to?  Each vertex of the spacetime HyperDiamond latticeis not just a point, but also contains its ownInternal Symmetry Space (also a HyperDiamond lattice),so the amplitude for a gauge boson to go from one vertexto another depends not only on the spacetime link between the vertices but also on the degree of connection the gauge bosonhas with the Internal Symmetry Spaces of the vertices. If the gauge boson can connect any vertex in theorigin Internal Symmetry Space with any vertex inthe destination Internal Symmetry Space,then the gauge boson has full connectivity betweenthe Internal Symmetry Spaces. However, if the gauge boson can connect a vertex in theorigin Internal Symmetry Space only with some,but not any, of the vertices inthe destination Internal Symmetry Space,then the gauge boson has only partial connectivity betweenthe Internal Symmetry Spaces, andhas a lower amplitude to be emitted from the originspacetime vertex to the destination spacetime vertex. The amount of connectivity between the Internal Symmetry Spacesis the geometric measure of the charge of a force,and therefore of its force strength. To represent the gauge boson connectivitybetween Internal Symmetry Spaces,it is useful to label the basis of the Internal Symmetry Spaceby the degrees of freedom of the forces: electric charges { +1, -1 } ; and color (red, green, blue) charges { +r, -r; +g, -g; +b, -b } . so that the total basis of the Internal Symmetry Space is { +1, -1, +r, -r; +g, -g; +b, -b }  This connectivity can be measured by comparing the full target Internal Symmetry Space HyperDiamond lattice with the subspace of the targetInternal Symmetry Space HyperDiamond latticethat is the image of a given point ofthe origin Internal Symmetry Space under all thetransformations of the Internal Symmetry Spaceof the gauge group of the force.  The MISforce target manifolds are Spacetime for Spin(5) Gravity and Internal Symmetry Space for gauge groups SU(3), SU(2), and U(1).Each irreducible component has dimension mforce. The MISforce target manifolds for the four forces are:  Gauge Group       Symmetric Space      mforce      MISforce  Spin(5)          Spin(5) / Spin(4)       4           S^4 SU(3)            SU(3) / SU(2)xU(1)      4           CP^2  SU(2)              SU(2) / U(1)          2          S^2xS^2  U(1)                 U(1)                1            T^4  `

### Volume of Link to Target.

The Discrete HyperDiamond GeneralizedFeynman Checkerboard and ContinuousManifolds are related by QuantumSuperposition:
`If, as in the case of the Electromagnetic U(1) photon,there is only one gauge boson that can go through the linkfrom an origin spacetime HyperDiamond vertex to a target vertex,then the link to the target vertex is like a one-lane road. For the Weak SU(2) force, the Color SU(3) force,and Spin(5) Gravity, there are, respectively, 3, 8, and 10gauge bosons that can go through the linkfrom an origin spacetime HyperDiamond vertex to a target vertex,so that the link to the target vertex is like a multi-lane highway. The volume of the link to the target vertexis not measured just by the number of gauge bosons,but by the volume of the minimal manifold Qforcethat can carry two things: the gauge bosons, with gauge group Gforce; and the U(1) phase of the propagator from origin to target. The first step in constructing Qforce is tofind a manifold whose local isotropy symmetry groupis Gforce x U(1) so that it can carryboth Gforce and U(1). To do that, look for the smallest Hermitian symmetric spaceof the form K / (Gforce x U(1)). Having found that Hermitian symmetric space,then go to its corrrespondingcomplex bounded homogeneous domain, Dforce. Then take Qforce to be the Shilov boundary of Dforce. Qforce is then the minimal manifold that cancarry both Gforce and U(1), and so is themanifold that should represent the link from origin to target vertex. The Qforce, Hermitian symmetric space,and Dforce manifolds for the four forces are:   Gauge       Hermitian             Type       mforce     Qforce Group       Symmetric              of               Space               Dforce  Spin(5)  Spin(7) / Spin(5)xU(1)    IV5          4       RP^1xS^4  SU(3)    SU(4) / SU(3)xU(1)      B^6(ball)      4        S^5  SU(2)    Spin(5) / SU(2)xU(1)      IV3          2       RP^1xS^2  U(1)           -                   -            1         -    The geometric volumes ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforce,the link volume Qforce,and the bounded complex domains Dforce of whichthe link volume is the Shilov boundary,mostly taken from Hua, are: Force        M         Vol(M)         Q gravity        S4        8 pi^2 / 3      RP1xS4  color         CP2        8 pi^2 / 3       S5 weak         S2xS2        2x4 pi         RP1xS2 e-mag          T4         4x2 pi           -Force     Vol(Q)        D         Vol(D)    gravity    8 pi^3 / 3     IV5         pi^5 / 2^4 5!  color       4 pi^3       B^6(ball)      pi^3 / 6  weak        4 pi^2        IV3 &        pi^3 / 24  e-mag         -             -             -  The geometric part of the force strength isformed from the product of the volumes ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforceand the link volume Qforce. To take the product properly,we must take into account howthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforce,which lives at the target vertex,and the link volume Qforce,which lives on the link connecting the origin vertexto the target vertex and so can be regarded ascontaining both the origin vertex and the target vertex,fit together. The dimension mforce of each irreducible component ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforceis less than the dimension of the link volume Qforce, which in turn is less than the dimension ofthe bounded complex domain Dforce of whichthe link volume Qforce is the Shilov boundary. Since the link volume Qforce is a Shilov boundary,it can be regarded as a shell whose Shilov interior isthe bounded complex domain Dforce. If we were to merely take the product of thevolume of the target Internal Symmetry Space MISforcewith the volume of the link volume Qforce,we would be overcounting the contribution ofthe link volume Qforce because of its dimensionis higher than the dimension of each irreducible component ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforce. To get rid of the overcounting,we should make the link volume Qforce compatible witheach irreducible component ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforce. Since the target Internal Symmetry Space MISforcehas fundamentally a 4-dimensional HyperDiamond structure,each irreducible component is fundamentally made up ofmforce-dimensional hypercubic cells, where the irreducible component hypercubic cells are4-dimensional for Gravity and the Color force,2-dimensional for the Weak force,and 1-dimensional for Electromagnetism. Since Dforce is the Shilov interior of Qforce,Qforce would be compatible with MISforceif Dforce were mapped 1-1 ontoan mforce-dimensional hypercubic cellin an irreducible component ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforce. To do this, first construct a hypercube of the same dimensionmforce as an irreducible component ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforceand the same volume as Dforce. The edge length of such a hypercube isthe mforce-th root of the volume ofthe bounded complex domain Dforce. Since the hypercubes in the fundamental HyperDiamond structuresof the target Internal Symmetry Space MISforceand its irreducible components are unit hypercubeswith edge length 1, we must, to make the link volume Qforce compatible witheach irreducible component ofthe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforce, divide the volume of the link volume Qforceby the mforce-th root of the volume ofthe bounded complex domain Dforce to make Dforce the right size to fitthe hypercubes in the fundamental HyperDiamond structuresof the target Internal Symmetry Space MISforceand its irreducible components. In other words,to reconcile the dimensionality of the link volume Qforceto the dimensionality of the target Internal Symmetry Space,divide Qforce by Vol(Dforce)^( 1 / mforce ) . The resulting volume Vol(Qforce) / Vol(Dforce)^( 1 / mforce )  is then the correctly normalized volume of the spacetime link that isavailable for the gauge boson to go through to get tothe target spacetime vertex from the origin vertex, which correctly normalized volume should be used inmultiplying by the volume ofhe target Internal Symmetry Space MISforceto get the geometric part of the force strength.   `

### Effective Mass Factors.

`  In the low-energy ranges of our experiments,the Weak force and Gravity are carried effectivelyby gauge bosons that are notmassless high-energy SU(2) or Spin(5) gauge bosons,but are either massive Weak bosons due to the Higgs mechanismor effective spin-2 gravitons. Mforce represents the effective mass forthe Weak force and Gravity in the low-energy range. In the low-energy range, the forece strengths ofthe Weak force and Gravity have an effective mass factor1 / Mforce^2. For other forces, the Color force and Electromagnetism,the effective mass factor is taken to be unity, 1.`

Effective mass factors for the weak force and gravity have avisualization (arising from e-mail discussion with Dick Andersen):Gauge bosons are visualized as going from asource through a medium to a target:

• The weak force mass factor is related to the Higgs mechanism. The Higgs scalar field absorbs some of the weak bosons as they go through the medium, thus weakening the weak force and producing the weaker effective weak force that is observed by experiments;
• The graviton by itself is long-range and massless, but virtual Planck-mass black holes in spacetime absorb some of the gravitons as they go through the spacetime medium, thus weakening the gravitational force and producing the weaker effective gravitational force that is observed by experiments;

### Gravity.

` Gravity comes from the conformal group Spin(6)and its de Sitter subgroup Spin(5).   For Gravity, Spin(5) gravitons can carry all of theInternal Symmetry Space charges { +1, -1; +r, -r; +g, -g; +b, -b } Spin(5) gravitons act transitively on the4-dimensional manifold S^4 = Spin(5) / Spin(4),so that they can take any given point inthe origin Internal Symmetry Space into any point in thetarget Internal Symmetry Space. The full connectivity of the Gravity of Spin(5) gravitonsis geometrically represented by MISGas the 4-dimensional sphere S^4 = Spin(5) / Spin(4)whose volume is 8pi^2/3. The link manifold to the target vertex is QG =  RP^1 x S^4 = ShilovBdy(DG)with volume 8pi^3/3 The bounded complex homogeneous domain DG is of type IV5with volume pi^5/2^4 5!. It corresponds to theHermitian Symmetric Space Spin(7)/(Spin(5) x U(1). For Spin(5) Gravity, mG is 4. For Spin(5) Gravity, MG = mPlanck, so that 1 / MG^2 = 1 / mPlanck^2.   Therefore, the force strength of Gravity is: alphaG = (1 / MG^2 ) ( Vol(MISG) )                     ( Vol(QG) / Vol(DG)^( 1 / mG ))   which is GGmproton^2 approx 5 x 10^-39 at the characteristic energy level of approx 10^19 GeV,the Planck energy.  The only factor different from 1 in the force strength ofGravity is the Effective Mass factor,because force strengths in the HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard modelare represented as ratios with respect to the strongestgeometric force, Gravity, so that the geometric force strengthfactors for Gravity are cancelled to unity by taking the ratiowith themselves.`

A physical interpretation for the value of 1 for the geometricstrength of gravity is that gravity is what holds spacetime together,and the amplitude for a graviton to be emitted/absorbed from onepoint of spacetime to a neighboring (with respect to Planck-lengthlattice structure) point of spacetime is 1, so that, with probability1^2 = 1, each spacetime point is connected to its neighboring points,and spacetime holds together.

The mass factor for gravitationhas a visualization (arising from e-mail discussion with DickAndersen). Gauge bosons are visualized as going from a source througha medium to a target. The graviton by itself is long-range andmassless, but virtual Planck-mass blackholes in spacetime absorb some of the gravitons as they gothrough the spacetime medium, thus weakening the gravitational forceand producing the weaker effective gravitational force that isobserved by experiments.

`For an estimate of the Planck mass calculated inthe spirit of the HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard model, see http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/Planck.html  The action of Gravity on Spinors is given by the Papapetrou Equations.  `
Near FieldInduction/Static Region Strong Salam Gravity is confined to a regionabout a micron in size, and, since the mass factor 1/Mplanck^2 doesnot apply, has maximal force strength 1.

In the Near Field Induction/Static Region, the gravitonseffectively bypass the virtual Planck-massblack holes in spacetime that absorb some Far Field gravitons asthey go through the Far Field Region of the spacetime medium.

### ColorForce.

` For the Color force, SU(3) gluons carry theInternal Symmetry Space color charges { +r, -r; +g, -g; +b, -b }  SU(3) gluons act transitively on the4-dimensional manifold  CP^2 = SU(3) / (SU(2) x U(1)),so that they can take any given point inthe origin Internal Symmetry Space into any point in thetarget Internal Symmetry Space. The full connectivity of the Color force of SU(3) gluonsis geometrically represented by MISCas  CP^2 = SU(3) / (SU(2) x U(1))whose volume is 8pi^2/3. The link manifold to the target vertex is QC = S^5 = ShilovBdy(B^6)with volume 4pi^3 The bounded complex homogeneous domain DC is of type B^6 (ball)with volume pi^3/6 For the SU(3) Color force, mC is 4.  For the SU(3) Color force, MC = 1 , so that for the SU(3) Color force, 1 / MC^2 = 1   Therefore, the force strength of the Color force,which is sometimes conventionally denoted by alphaS (for strong)as well as by alphaC, is: alphaC = alphaS = ( 1 / MC^2 )                   ( Vol(MISC) )                   ( Vol(QC) / Vol(DC)^( 1 / mC ))   which, when divided by the geometric force strength of Gravity,is 0.6286at the characteristic energy level of about 245 MeV.   Force strength constants and particle masses are not really "constant" when you measure them, as the result of your measurement will depend on the energy at which you measure them.  Measurements at one energy level can be related to measurements at another by renormalization equations. In the D4-D5-E6-E7 model, Dilatation Scale Transformations of the Conformal Group provide a natural setting for the Renormalization Group Process. The lightest experimentally observable particle based on the color force is the pion, which is a quark-antiquark pair made up of the lightest quarks, the up and down quarks. A quark-antiquark pair is the carrier of the strong force, and mathematically resembles a bivector gluon, which is the carrier of the color force.  The charactereistic energy level of pions is the square root of the sum of the squares of the masses of the two charged and one neutral pion. It is about 245 MeV (to more accuracy 241.4 MeV). The gluon-carried color force strength is renormalized to higher energies from about 245 MeV in the conventional way.  The Color force strength was calculated at various energies according to lowest order renormalization group equations, as also shown at http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/cweRen.html  with the following results:    Energy Level           Color Force Strength     245 MeV                  0.6286     5.3 GeV                  0.166      34 GeV                  0.121      91 GeV                  0.106    Shifman, in a paper at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/hep-ph/9501222  has noted that Standard Model global fits at the Z0 peak,about 91 GeV, give a color force strength of about0.125 with LambdaQCD approx 500 MeV, whereas low energy results and lattice calculationsgive a color force strength at the Z0 peak of about0.11 with LambdaQCD approx 200 MeV. The low energy results and lattice calculations arecloser to the tree level HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard modelvalue at 91 GeV of 0.106. Also, the D4-D5-E6 HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboard model hasLambdaQCD equal to about 245 MeV.  For the pion mass, upon which the LambdaQCDcalculation depends, see http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/SnGdnPion.html   `

### WeakForce.

`  For the Weak force, SU(2) Weak bosons carry theInternal Symmetry Space electric charges { +1, -1 }  SU(2) Weak bosons act transitively on the2-dimensional manifold S^2 = SU(2) / U(1),so that two copies of S^2, in the form of S^2 x S^2,are required so thatthey can take any given point inthe origin Internal Symmetry Space into any point in thetarget Internal Symmetry Space. Each of the two connectivity components of the Weak force ofSU(2) Weak bosons is geometrically represented by MISWas S^2 = SU(2) / U(1)whose volume is 4pi. The total manifold MISW is S^2 x S^2,with volume 2 x 4pi The link manifold to the target vertex is QW =  RP^1 x S^2 = ShilovBdy(DW)with volume 4pi^3. The bounded complex homogeneous domain DW is of type IV3with volume 4pi^2. It corresponds to theHermitian Symmetric Space Spin(5)/(SU(2) x U(1).  For the SU(2) Weak force, mW is 2. For the SU(2) Weak force, due to the Higgs mechanism,MW = sqrt(mW+^2 + mW-^2 + mW0^2), so that 1 / MW^2 = 1 / (mW+^2 +mW-^2 + mW0^2). `

The mass factor for the weak forcehas a visualization (arising from e-mail discussion with DickAndersen). Gauge bosons are visualized as going from a source througha medium to a target. The weak force mass factor is related to theHiggs mechanism. The Higgs scalar field absorbs some of the weakbosons as they go through the medium, thus weakening the weak forceand producing the weaker effective weak force that is observed byexperiments;

` Therefore, the force strength of the Weak force is: alphaW = ( 1 / MW^2 )          ( Vol(MISW))         ( Vol(QW) / Vol(DW)^( 1 / mW ))   which, when divided by the geometric force strength of Gravity,is GWmproton^2  = approx 1.05 x 10^-5 at the characteristic energy level of approx 100 GeV. The geometric component of the Weak force strength,that is, everything but the effective mass factor,has the value 0.2535 when divided by the geometricforce strength of Gravity,   `

### Electromagnetism.

Walter Smilga's 2003 calculation of theelectromagnetic fine structure constant is, in my opinon, clearand elegant.
` For Electromagnetism, U(1) photons carry noInternal Symmetry Space charges. U(1) Weak bosons act transitively on the1-dimensional manifold S^1 = U(1),so that four copies of S^1, in the form of the 4-torus T^4,are required so that they can take any given point inthe origin Internal Symmetry Space into any point in thetarget Internal Symmetry Space. Each of the four connectivity components of the Electromagnetism ofU(1) photons is geometrically represented by MISEas S^1 = U(1)whose volume is 2pi. The total manifold MISE is T^4 = S^1 x S^1 x S^1 x S^1,with volume 4 x 2pi The link manifold to the target vertex is trivial for theabelian neutral U(1) photons of Electromagnetism,so we take QE and DE to be equal to unity. For U(1) Electromagnmetism, mE is 1. For U(1) Electromagnmetism, ME = 1 , so that 1 / ME^2 = 1.  Therefore, the force strength of Electromagnetism is: alphaE = ( 1 / ME^2 )          ( Vol(MISE) )         ( Vol(QE) / Vol(DE)^( 1 / mE ))       = 8 pi   which, when divided by the geometric force strength of Gravity,is 8 pi Vol(IV5)^( 1 / 4 )) / ( Vol(S^4) Vol(ShilovBdy(IV5)) )and gives  the electromagnetic fine structure constant alphaE = 1/137.03608 at the characteristic energy level of about 4 KeV.`

The electromagnetic fine structure constant was first(to my knowledge) calculated in a similar way by Armand Wyler in the1960s - early1970s.

In March 2003, Walter Smilga wrote apaper entitled Higher order terms in the contraction ofSO(3,2), in which he said:

"... The contraction of a spin-1/2 representation of the de Sitter group SO(3,2) yields a translation operator that consists of the usual momentum operator plus a second order term, the "momentum spin" as described by F. Gursey. The contribution of momentum spin to the kinematics of a multiparticle system in a tangential space of anti de Sitter space is analyzed. It is shown that it can be described by a perturbation term with the structure of the interaction term of quantum electrodynamics. An evaluation of the corresponding coupling constant reproduces Wyler's heuristic formula for the electromagnetic coupling constant. ...

... We start from a system of spin-1/2 ... massive, structureless, lepton-like ... particles in a tangential space-time with a Minkowski structure. ...

... we ... have to incorporate a sujitable p;orjection mechanism onto our two-particle basic. ... only such terms with q = q' will be involved, as a consequence of momentum entanglement within two-particle states. ... we can drop the restriction to a fixed ... momentum P and collect all contributions that belong to the same p and q. Hence, we can write [using y for gamma]

... bbar( p + q ) y_u b(p) atilde^u(q) ... (26) ... with

atilde^u(q) = INTEGRAL dV(p') bbar( p' - q ) p^u b(p') , (27)

where dV(p') indicates a summation over all contribution that belong to the same p and q. ... Let us replace the operator atilde^u(q) of (27) by a new operator a^u(q) ... atilde^u(q) -> e a^u(q) ... We have to insert a ... normaliztion factor e ... Then ... a^u(k) ... are ... absorption operators for quanta with momentum k. ...

... We ... have explicitly constructed an interaction term from known elements of the electrons Fock space and also have defined the bookkeeping field in terms of these elements. ... our approach does not leave room for any free parameter. This means that the coupling constant e is determined by the theory and, therefore, should be calculable. ...

... This coupling constant is defined by the normalization of atilde^u(q) in (27) relative to the emission operator a^u(q) ... This ratio can ... be determined by correctly "counting" all contributions to (27) - in other words: by a careful analysis of the volume element of the integral in (27). ...

... The basis for the evaluation of the integration volume in (27) are the particle momenta adn the homgeneous Lorentz group acting on the particle momenta. The SO(3,1) acts transitively on a particle mass shell p0^2 - p1^2 - p2^2 - p3^2 = m^2. (34) The independent parameters p1,p2,p3 span a 3-dimensional parameter space. For a two-aprticle state ... we have ...

p0^2 + p'0^2 - p1^2 - p'1^2 - p2^2 - p'2^2 - p3^2 - p'3^2 = M^2 - k^2 . (38)

The symmetry group of this quadratic form is SO(6,2). ...

[ Note that the corresponding CliffordAlgebra is Cl(2,6) = M8(Q) =8x8 Quaternionic matrix algebra. ]

...[ Invariance of k^2]... reduces the number of independent parameters from 6 to 5 and thereby SO(6,2) to SO(5,2). SO(5,2) acts transitively on this 5-dimensional parameter spce. Each point in this parameter space corresponds to a state in the two-particle state space H_M. ... Given a point Q in this parameter space, then other points can be reached by applying a linear transformation of SO(5,2) to Q. There are certain transformations that do not change the point Q. These transformations form the subgroup S(O(5)xO(2)). This is the isotropy subgroup or stabilizer of Q. Therefore, to obtain the multiplicity of states, we have to start from the coset space D5 = SO(5,2) / S(O(5)xO(2)) rather than from SO(5,2).

D5 is a symmetric space. By construction D5 is isomorphic to H_M. ... D5 ... is isomorphic to the real hyperball R_R(5,2) = { X in R^(5x2) | I - XX' > 0 }. (39) ...

... all states with given P0 are confined to a volume Dbar5 inside of ... the border sphere C5 of D5 ... and including C5. The subspace Dbar5 of D5 is finite and can be mapped onto R_R(5,2) by an isometric mapping. If Q = (q1, ... , q5) is a point of Dbar5 that is mapped into a point S = (s1, ... , s5) of R_R(5,2), then ... qi = r si , (40) where r is a ... scaling factor. ... We will use the notation V(D5) for the volume that corresponds to Dbar5 but is calculated in R_R(5,2) and will remember that we have to apply the correct number of scaling factors r.

[ Note that in the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model, C5 is aShilov Boundary of a Type IV5 Complex Domain related to Gravity.]

C5 has another important property: If particle 1 is initially at rest and a second particle with a given momentum p' is added to form a two-particle state, then this state corresponds to a point on C5 ... Other states can be generated from this "initial" state by the exchange of momentum. Therefore, to determine all states that are eventually involved we have first to collater all initial states. This means, we have to perform an integration over C5 with a volume element of d4s / V(C5). This delivers a first volume factor of 1 / V(C5).

To collect all possible momentum changes of particle 1 we have to integrate over Dbar5. ... only momentum exchanges in the subspace perpendicular to P have to be considered. Since the direction of the total momentum is undetermined .. we have to keep the integration over D5. We compensate for this by a volume factor of 1 / V(S4) where S4 = SO(5,2) / SO(4,2) = SO(5) / SO(4) is the unit sphere in 4 dimensions ...

[ Note that in the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model, S4 is a Target Manifoldrelated to Gravity. ]

... This reduces the number of independent parameters to 4. Let (s1, ..., s4) be a new set of independent parameters corresponding to a new set (q1, ... , q4). If we integrate over Dbar5 using this new parameter set, each si will be responsible for a contribution of V(D5)^(1/4) to the volume of Dbar5. Three of these parameters can be mapped onto the transferred momentum q. The fourth parameter s4 ... corresponds to a momentum transfer within each of the particle momenta, without any momentum transfer between the particles. such transitions contribute to the volume of C5. We can perform the integration over s4 and obtain a correcting factor to the aready calculated volume V(C5) of V(D5)^(1/4).

There are two more factors that contribute to the multiplicity of momentum states. One is related to the spin components of the particle states, which give each momentum state a multiplicity of 4 pi because of the periodicity of spin states.

The other factor is related to the (relative) phases of the momentum states within multiparticle states. By adding another factor of 2 pi we take into account this degree-of-freedom.

Collecting all these factors we end up with

8 pi^2 V(D5)^(1/4) / ( V(S4) V(C5) ).

This is essentially Wyler's formula. ... we obtain a value for alpha

alpha = 1 / 137.03608245

... We can easily convince ourselves that the scaling factors r either cancel or are absorbed in the volume element d3q. ...

.. It is ... very tempting to identify Gursey's momentum spin with the current of quantum electrodynamics. ... There may exist essential contributions of other higher order terms. ... Such terms still deserve more attention. ...".

` `

With respect to the mass of the photon,according to hep-ph/0306245by Eric Adelberger, Gia Dvali, and Andrei Gruzinov:

"... The possibility of a non-zero photon mass remains one of the most important issues in physics, as it would shed light on fundamental questions such as charge conservation, charge quantization, the possibility of the charged black holes and magnetic monopoles, etc. The most stringent upper bounds on the photon mass listed by the Particle Data Group ... m < 3 X 10^(-27) eV and m < 2 x 10^(-16), are based on the assumption that a massive photon would cause large-scale magnetic fields to be accompanied by an energy density ... associated with the Proca field ... that describes the massive photon ... This manifests itself in two different ways. The first limit comes from the potential astrophysical effects ... and the second from an experiment that used a toroidally magnetized pendulum ... to measure the magnetic field gradient in a magnetically shielded vacuum. A recent experiment ... using an improved technique obtained a similar result. ... Both experiments actually measured the product m^2 Abar where the ambient Proca vector potential [ Abar] is presumably dominated by the field of the galaxy. The value assumed ... Abar = R B = 1 uG x kpc, is astronomicallyreasonable as the large-scale, R = 1 kpc, galactic field has a strength B = 1 uG. ... If m arises from a Higgs effect, both limits are invalid because the Proca vector-potential of the galactic magnetic field may be neutralized by vortices giving a large-scale magnetic field that is effectively Maxwellian. ... Crudely speaking, if m is due to a Higgs effect, then the Universe is effectively a type II superconductor where magnetic fields create Abrikosov vortices. ... We claim that photon mass bounds cannot be established without specifying the microscopic origin of the mass. In particular, if m arises from the commonly accepted Higgs mechanism, the above bounds do not apply over a large portion of the parameter space. ... It is quite possible for large-scale magnetic fields to be effectively Maxwellian, even if photons are massive. In this case observations of large-scale fields, say from the galaxy or from Jupiter, are not sensitive to m. This leaves us with the upper bound from laboratory tests of Coulomb's law, m < 10^(-14) eV ... It is also possible that the large-scale fields do remain in the Proca regime. But then, the available information about the large-scale magnetic field of the galaxy, and the gas pressure in the galaxy, actually gives a much more stringent bound, m^(-1) > R = 1 kpc, or m < 10^(-26) eV...".
`From Sets to Quarks: Table of Contents: Chapter 1 - Introduction. Chapter 2 - From Sets to Clifford Algebras. Chapter 3 - Octonions and E8 lattices. Chapter 4 - E8 spacetime and particles. Chapter 5 - HyperDiamond Lattices. Chapter 6 - Spacetime and Internal Symmetry Space. Chapter 7 - Feynman Checkerboards. Chapter 8 - Charge = Amplitude to Emit Gauge Boson. Chapter 9 - Mass = Amplitude to Change Direction. Chapter 10 - Protons, Pions, and Physical Gravitons. Appendix A - Errata for Earlier Papers. References.`

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