Tony Smith's Home Page

Cosmology:

At the Millenium,Experimental Observations tell usa lot about Cosmology.

The Inflationary Universe begins with anempty universe and a non-zero cosmological term, which ismathematically equivalent to a negative pressure, so the origin ofthe universe is a lot like the Bhuddist picture of thevoid torn apart by the Chinese hermit Ryu playing his iron flute inthe reverse direction. (See "The World is Sound: Nada Brahma" byJoachim-Ernst Berendt, Destiny (1987, 1991), p. 170)

 

Brief Historyof the Inflationary Universe:

After the Universe has expanded to a very dilute state, aNew Inflationary Universe can formfrom a Quantum Fluctuation.

The first of the above 7 images is adapted from Figure 3.7 of TheEarly Universe, by Edward W. Kolb and Michael S. Turner (paperbackedition, Addison-Wesley 1994), and the other 6 of the above 7 imagesare adapted from the article The Future of the Universe, by Fred C.Adams and Gregory Laughlin, Sky and Telescope Magazine, August 1998,pages 32-39.


Some Interesting Times:


Table of Contents:

NOTE: Due to typographical limitations ofHTML, sometimes } denotes greater than, { less than, and k theLaplacian.


Albert Einstein was almost run downby several cars when he stopped in his tracks while crossing a streetin Princeton. What caused Einstein to stop in the middle of a street?It was an IDEA - that matter, stars, or perhaps even all theParticles in the Universe might be Created From Nothing, because itsnegative gravitational energy equals its positive rest massenergy.


InflationaryUniverse:

Zizzi QuantumInflation and Self-Decoherence

( Note - my comments within quotations are set off bybrackets [ ] . )

The papergr-qc/0007006 by Paola Zizzi shows that

"... during inflation, the universe can be described as asuperposed state of quantum... [ qubits ].

The self-reductionof the superposed quantum state is ... reached at the end ofinflation ...[at]... the decoherence time

... [ Tdecoh = 10^9 Tplanck = 10(-34) sec ]...

and

corresponds to a superposed state of ... [ 10^19 =2^64 qubits ]. ...

... This is also the number of superposed tubulins-qubitsin our brain ... leading to a conscious event. ...".

In a subsequentpaper, gr-qc/0103002, Paola Zizzi says:

"... We consider a quantum gravity register that is a particular quantum memory register which grows with time, and whose qubits are pixels of area of quantum de Sitter horizons. At each time step, the vacuum state of this quantum register grows because of the uncertainty in quantum information induced by the vacuum quantum fluctuations. The resulting virtual states, (responsible for the speed up of growth, i.e., inflation), are operated on by quantum logic gates and transformed into qubits. ... We also show that the bound on the speed of computation, the bound on clock precision, and the holographic bound, are saturated by the QGN. ...

... The model of quantum growing network (QGN) described here is exactly solvable, and (apart from its cosmological implications), can be regarded as the first attempt toward a future model for the quantum World-Wide Web. ... A quantum Web could even undergo conscious experiences, if we believe ... that conscious experiences are due to decoherence of tubulins-qubits ... The idea of a conscious quantum Web is quite in agreement with the Global Brain idea ... ( the Net becoming the brain of a superorganism of which humans are just a component ). ...

... One could argue that the QGN discussed in this paper, is one of the attractors of some self-organizing system. That self-organizing system might be some kind of non local and non causal space-time structure made up of entangled qubits ... Although that system does not represent any physical space-time, it can be considered as a proto space-time, which is the seed of physical quantum space-time. ... we think that ... a random and non-local structure exists just below the Planck scale. At the Planck scale, the random network has already self-organized into the QGN. Indeed, we believe that the quantum beginning of physical space-time took place at the node 0 (the Hadamard gate) of the QGN. Quantized time appears as the result of the transformation of virtual states (vacuum energy) into qubits (quantum information) at the nodes of a quantum network. ...

... The speed up of the growth of the QGN, is due to virtual states and it is responsible for quantum inflation. If virtual states were absent in the quantum network, the growth would be much slower. In that case, the early universe could be interpreted as a 2^n lattice (n=0,1,2…), represented by the regular tree graph ...

... we have three "degrees" (or phases) for the beginning of the universe:

... The beginning of existence of the universe (at the end of inflation due to decoherence) coincided with a cosmic conscious event ... of which our brain structure is still reminiscent. ...".

[ My view of whathappens next, after decoherence and the end of inflation, may notbe exactly the same as that of Paola Zizzi, but I think that it is inthe spirit of her work. My view is:

 

A few months after writing gr-qc/0103002,Paula Zizzi wrote gr-qc/0110122,in which she said:

"... In a previous paper (gr-qc/0103002), the inflationary universe was described as a quantum growing network (QGN). Here, we propose our view of the QGN as the "ultimate Internet", as it saturates the quantum limits to computation. ... The QGN can be ... divided into two sub-systems:
  • ... the connected part, made of connecting links and nodes, (quantum fluctuations ...) ... the quantum foam ...[which]... can be thought of as the "environment" ...
  • ... the disconnected part ...[which]... can be thought of as the quantum state ...

... Also, we ...[discuss]... some features of the QGN which are related to:

  • ... the cosmological constant problem ... and ... the quantum computational aspects of spacetime foam and decoherence ...

    ... as the QGN describes the early inflationary universe, the decohence time corresponds to the end of inflation, and the decoherence energy corresponds to the reheating energy. ... We can visualize the QGN after decoherence as a regular lattice, the connected part of the QGN itself. ...

     ... inflation ... is due to the presence of virtual qubits in the vacuum state of the quantum memory register. Virtual quantum information is created by quantum vacuum fluctuations, because of the inverse relation [... gr-qc/0103002 ...] between the quantized cosmological constant [... hep-th/9808180 ...] and quantum information I : ...

    /\_n = 1 / I (L_planck)^2

     where: n = 0,1,2,3... and the quantum information I is [... gr-qc/9907063 ...] : ...

    I = N = (n+1)^2

    ... [leading] to: ...

    delta_I = - delta_/\ / ( (L_planck)^2 /\^2 ) = 2n +3

    ... That is, at each time step t_n, there are 2n+3 extra bits (virtual states) in the vacuum state of the quantum memory register, where: ...

    t_n = (n+1) t_planck

    is the quantized time, and t_planck = 10^(-43) sec . is the Planck time. ...

    ... We calculate the present value of the quantized cosmological constant ... with n_now = 9 x 10^60, and we get: ...

    /\_now = 1.25 x 10^(-52) m^(-2)

    Also, we obtain: ...

    OMEGA_/\ = /\ c^2 / 3 H_o^2 = (1/3) /\ c^2 (t_now)^2

    Where ... t_now = H_o^(-1) = 3 x 10^17 h^(-1) sec

    H_o being the Hubble constant and h a dimensionless parameter in the range: 0.58 < h < 0.72 . By choosing h = 0.65, we get: ...

    OMEGA_./\ = 0.7

    ... quite in agreement with the Type Ia SN observation data ...

    From this result, the connecting links (virtual states) of the QGN look like to be still active. But the value of the total entropy is too big, for n_now = 10^60 : it would be S_now = 10^120 ln(2) , indeed a huge amount of entropy. We believe that ... at some earlier time, the QGN decohered ...[and]... the free links were not activated anymore by the nodes, since the decoherence time. We can visualize the QGN after decoherence as a regular lattice, the connected part of the QGN itself. ...

    ... The speed of computation v of a system of average energy E , is bounded as ... : ...

    v < 2 E / pi hbar

    ... The energy of node "n" is ... the energy ... of the nth quantum fluctuation of the ... connected ... nodes ... : ..

    E = E_planck / (n+1)

    ... E_planck = 10^19 GeV is the Planck energy ... we have : ...

    E_now(nodes) = E_planck / n_now = 10^(-41) GeV = 10^(-51) J

    for n -> infinity, quantum information I will grow to infinity as n^2, while the energy of the nodes will decrease to zero as 1 / n . ... a low energy just reflects ... a low speed of computation v but not ... a low amount of information. ... it follows : ...

    v_now = 10^(-17) sec^(-1)

    ... in our case, v_now^(-1) is the age of the universe:

    v_now^(-1) = 10^17 sec

    ... Ng showed [... hep-th/0010234 ... gr-qc/0006105 ...] ... the bounds on speed of computation v and information I can be reformulated respectively as : ...

    v^2 < P / hbar

    I < hbar / P t_planck^2

    where P is the mean input power ...[leading]... to a simultaneous ... bound on the information I and the speed of computation v : ...

    I v^2 < 1 / t_planck^2

    ... from the simultaneous bound ... we get : I_now < 10^120 ...

    ... The quantum entropy of N = I qubits is: S = I ln(2). ...[if the bound were saturated]... We would get .. a huge total entropy S_now = 10^120 ln(2) ...

    ... to get the actual entropy [now], one should compute it as: ...

    S_now = 10^120 ln(2) / S_decoherence = 10^120 / I_max

    If one agrees with Penrose [... The Emperor's New Mind, Oxford University Press (1989). in which Penrose says:

    • "... let us consider what was previously thought to supply the largest contribution to the entropy of the universe, namely the 2.7 K black-body background radiation. ... The background radiation entropy is something like 10^8 for every baryon (where I am now choosing 'natural units', so that Boltzmann's constant, is unity). (In effect, this means that there are 10^8 photons in the background radiation for every baryon.) Thus, with 10^80 baryons in all, we should have a total entropy of 10^88 for the entropy in the background radiation in the universe. Indeed, were it not for the black holes, this figure would represent the total entropy of the universe, since the entropy in the background radiation swamps that in all other ordinary processes. The entropy per baryon in the sun, for example, is of order unity. On the other hand, by black-hole standards, the background radiation entropy is utter 'chicken feed'. For the Bekenstein-Hawking formula tells us that the entropy per baryon in a solar mass black hole is about 10^20, in natural units, so had the universe consisted ... of ... galaxies ...[consisting]... mainly of ordinary stars - some 10^11 of them - and each to have a million (i.e. 10^6) solar-mass black hole at its core ... Calculation shows that the entropy per baryon would now be actually ... 10^21, giving a total entropy, in natural units, of 10^101 ...]

    ... that the entropy now should be of order 10^101, this corresponds to the maximum amount of quantum information at the moment of decoherence: ...

    I_max = 10^19 (n_cr = 10^9)

    where n_cr stands for the critical number of nodes which are needed to process the maximum quantum information, I_max ... it follows that the early quantum computational universe decohered at ...

    t_decoherence = 10^(-34) sec.

    Moreover ... we find that the mean energy at the moment of decoherence ( n = 10^9) is: ...

    E_decoherence = 10^10 GeV = 1 J

    corresponding to a rest mass m_decoherence = 10^(-13) g

    ... we get, for n = 10^9 : ...[the average speed of computation up to decoherence (i.e., during inflation) vbar_decoherence is given by]...

    vbar_decoherence = I_ max / t_decoherence = 10^53 sec^(-1)

    ... 

  • ... the "information loss" puzzle ...[and]... the problem of causality at the Planck scale ...

    ... the semiclassical arguments of black holes evaporation might fail at the Planck scale. When the black hole reaches the Planck mass [about 10^19 proton masses], strong quantum gravity effects might stop the evaporation process ...[and]... there would be a remnant, which should store all the information collapsed in the original black hole. ... the remnant Planckian black hole gives rise to a QGN ... This idea is similar to the original one of Dyson [... Institute of Advanced Study preprint, 1976, unpublished...], that the black hole disappears completely, but one or more new universes branch off and carry away the information. ... the "unphysical time" t_(-1) = 0 (corresponding to a singularity in the classical theory) is unphysical for the new born universe, but not for the mother universe. ... in the mother universe, t_(-1) is the latest instant of evaporation of the black hole which will originate the child universe. The fact that there is this "leap" from physical time to unphysical time, in the passage from one universe to another, means that the two universes are not causally related. ...

The resulting picture is a self-organizing system ...".

 

[ My view of evaporating black holes differs from that ofPaola Zizzi in gr-qc/0110122in at least one important respect:

Paola Zizzi says:

"... There is no fundamental reason that the number of qubits at which our inflationary universe self-decohered should be 10^19. This was just the number of bits lost in the evaporation of a black hole in our mother universe. ... We wish to make a distinction here between oblique universes and parallel universes. We name oblique universes those which were generated by black holes evaporation with different information loss, and which will have totally different evolutions. ... we are not only causally unrelated, but also logically unrelated, to oblique universes. ... we call parallel universes those which were generated from black holes evaporation with the same information loss, and which will have similar evolutions. ...".

My opinion is that the number of bits lost in the evaporation of ablack hole in a mother universe is NOTarbitrary, but MUST be 10^19, because the final stage in theevaporation is the evaporation of a Planck-massblack hole whose mass is 10^19 GeV = 10^19 proton masses.

The information just prior to the birth-evaporation is coded inthe protons within the Planck-mass black hole, one bit per proton, sothat the number of bits lost in the evaporation of a black hole ina mother universe MUST be 10^19, so that the "oblique universes"described by Paula Zizzi do not exist. ]

 

Here are some more details of Zizzi'sInflationary Cosmolgy, in the form of an edited summary ofthe papergr-qc/0007006 by Paola Zizzi, and some comments (set off bybrackets [ ] ) that I think are relevant:

In gr-qc/0007006,Paola Zizzi says:

"... the vacuum-dominated early inflationary universe ... is a superposed quantum state of qubits. ...

... the early universe had a conscious experience at the end of inflation, when the superposed quantum state of ... [ 10^18 = N quantum qubits ] ... underwent Objective Reduction. The striking point is that this value of [ N ] equals the number of superposed tubulins-qubits in our brain ...

... [ in the inflationary phase of our universe ] ... the quantum register grows with time. In fact, at each time step

... [ Tn = (n+1) Tplanck (where Tplanck = 5.3 x 10^(-44) sec) ] ...

a Planckian black hole, ... the n=1 qubit state 1 which acts as a creation operator, supplies the quantum register with extra qubits. ...

At time Tn = (n+1) Tplanck the quantum gravity register will consist of (n+1)^2 qubits. [ Let N = (n+1)^2 ] ...

By the quantum holographic principle, we associate N qubits to the nth de Sitter horizon ... remember that |1> = Had|0> where Had is the Hadamard gate ... the state ... [ of N qubits ] ... can be expressed as

... [ |N> = ( Had|0> )^N ] ...

As the time evolution is discrete, the quantum gravity register resembles more a quantum cellular automata than a quantum computer. Moreover, the quantum gravity register has the peculiarity to grow at each time step ( it is self-producing ). If we adopt an atemporal picture, then the early inflationary universe can be interpreted as an ensemble of quantum gravity registers in parallel ... which reminds us of the many-worlds interpretation. ...

The superposed state of quantum gravity registers represents the early inflationary universe which is a closed system. Obviously then, the superposed quantum state cannot undergo environmental decoherence. However, we know that at the end of the inflationary epoch, the universe reheated by getting energy from the vacuum, and started to be radiation-dominated becoming a Friedmann universe. This phase transition should correspond to decoherence of the superposed quantum state. The only possible reduction model in this case is self-reduction ...

during inflation, gravitational entropy and quantum entropy are mostly equivalent ...

Moreover ... The value of the cosmological constant now is

... /\N = 10^(-56) cm^(-2) ...

in agreement with inflationary theories.

If decoherence of N qubits occurred now, at Tnow = 10^60 Tplanck

( that is, n = 10^60, N = 10^120 )

there would be a maximum gravitational entropy

... [ maximum entropy Smax = N ln2 = 10^120 ] ...

In fact, the actual entropy is about

... [ entropy now Snow = 10^101 ] ...

[Therefore] decoherence should have occurred for

... [ Ndecoh = 10^(120-101) = 10^19 = 2^64 ] ...

which corresponds to ... [ n = 9 and to ] ... the decoherence time

... [ Tdecoh = 10^9 Tplanck = 10(-34) sec ] ...".

 

Is there a fundamental reason that the number of qubitsat which our inflationary universe experiences self-decoherenceis

Ndecoh = 10^19 = 2^64 ?

The self-reflexivityproperty of the 2^64-dimensional Cliffordalgebra Cl(64) causes self-decoherence!

From the point of view of myD4-D5-E6-E7-E8 Vodou Physics model, the fundamental structure isthe 2^8 = 256-dimensional Cl(8) Cliffordalgebra, which can be described by 2^8 qubits.

Our inflationary universe decoheres when it has Ndecoh = 2^64qubits.

What is special about 2^64 qubits ?

2^64 qubits corresponds to the Clifford algebra Cl(64) =Cl(8x8).

By the periodicity-8 theorem of realClifford algebras that

Cl(K8) = Cl(8) x ... tensor product K times ... xCl(8),

we have:

Cl(64) = Cl(8x8) =

= Cl(8) x Cl(8) x Cl(8) x Cl(8) x Cl(8) x Cl(8) x Cl(8) xCl(8)

Therefore,

Cl(64) is the first ( lowest dimension ) Clifford algebra at whichwe can reflexively identify each component Cl(8) with a vector in theCl(8) vector space.

This reflexive identification/reduction causesdecoherence.

It is the reason that our universe decoheres at N = 2^64 =10^19,

so that inflation ends at age 10^(-34) sec.

Note that Ndecoh = 2^64 = 10^19 qubits is just an order ofmagnitude larger than the number of tubulins Ntub = 10^18 of thehuman brain. In my model of QuantumConsciousness ( and that of JackSarfatti ), conscious thought is due to superposition states ofthose 10^18 tubulins. Since a brain with Ndecoh = 10^19 tubulinswould undergo self-decoherence and would therefore not be able tomaintain the superposition necessary for thought, it seems that thehuman brain is about asbig as an individual brain can be. The Zizzi Self-Decoherence canbe compared to GRW decoherence.


According to astro-ph/0307459,by Banks and Fischler: "... If the present acceleration of theuniverse is due to an asymptotically deSitter universe with smallcosmological constant, then the number of e-foldings during inflationis bounded. ... the physics involved in obtaining the bound isthat first, the existence of a small cosmological constant, /\, makesthe universe eventually appear to a local observer as a finite cavityof size /\^(-1/2) ... Second, ... this finite size cavity can onlyaccommodate a limited amount of entropy stored into field theoreticaldegrees of freedom. ... this limited amount of entropy scales like/\^(-3/4). Any excess entropy beyond this bound has to be encodedinto black holes or imprinted onto the walls of the cavity. Thatexcess entropy in turn is limited to be smaller than the entropy ofempty de Sitter space ... Any attempt to store information beyond theempty de Sitter space bound meets with a drastic distortion of thespace-time that bears no resemblance to asymptotic de Sitter spaceand in some circumstances, the space-time ends in a "big crunch". Inthis paper we will argue that the limited entropy that can fit intoasymptotic de Sitter space puts an upper bound on the amount ofinflation. On the other hand, there is a minimum number of e-foldingsrequired in order to reconcile the isotropy of the microwavebackground on large scales with causality ... We will see that thesenumbers are rather close. It is quite remarkable that a smallcosmological constant, seemingly irrelevant in magnitude whencompared to the energy density during inflation, has such animportant impact. The essential ingredient is that because of theUV-IR connection, entropy requires storage space. The existence of asmall cosmological constant restricts the available storagespace. ... for ... a fluid described by an equation of state p =k rho ... in a finite cavity ... there is a threshold on the amountof entropy stored in the fluid, beyond which black holes are formed.... The biggest value for the number of e-foldings occurs for thestiffest equation of state, k = 1 ... This case is one thatcorresponds to a universe filled with blackholes ... For illustrative purpose, we will estimate the value ofNe for the case where after inflation ends, the energy is dominatedby a k = 1 fluid. We will assume a value for /\_I = 10^16 GeV ...where /\_I is the value of the energy density during [? at thetime of exit from ?] inflation .... which is consistent withhaving not observed yet a background of gravitons. We obtain theupper bound ... N_e = 85 ... where we took [the cosmologicalconstant] /\ to be of O(10^(-3) eV ). For the sake of comparison,the case k = 1/3 [ correspondingto the equation of state for a radiation-dominated fluid, such as thecosmic microwave background ] yields with the same value for/\_I

N_e= 65

... This value for the maximum number of e-foldings is close tothe value necessary to solve the "horizon problem". It is interestingto note that a small value for the number of e-foldings may haveobservable implications for the low values of l in the spectrum offluctuations of the microwave background. ...".


The Inflationary Universe is initially a region of R4bounded by a Planck-size 3-sphereS3.

Since S3=SU(2), the Inflationary Universe has a boundary whoseglobal Lie group structure is isomorphic to the SU(2) of the Higgsmechanism, so that the Inflationary Universe looks like an ExpandingInstanton:

The New Universe can be regarded asbeing created in a Quantum FluctuationBlack Hole as described in hep-th/0103019by Damien A. Easson and Robert H. Brandenberger, who study "...consequences of cosmological scenarios in which our universe is bornfrom a black hole resting in a parent universe ...

 

Such Universe Creation by Quantum Fluctuation may be consistentwith the view of Dyson, Kleban, and Susskind in hep-th/0208013,where they say:

"... The conventional view is that the universe will end in a de Sitter phase with all matter being infinitely diluted by exponential expansion. ... In the following we will assume the usual connections between quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. These assumptions{together with the existence of a final cosmological constant - imply that the universe is eternal but finite. Strictly speaking, by finite we mean that the entropy of the observable universe is bounded, but we can loosely interpret this as saying the system is finite in extent. On the average it is in a steady state of thermal equilibrium. This is a very weak assumption, because almost any large but finite system, left to itself for a long enough time, will equilibrate (unless it is integrable). However, intermittent fluctuations occur which temporarily disturb the equilibrium. It is during the return to equilibrium that interesting events and objects form. ... Let S be the final thermodynamic entropy of the gas. Then on time scales of order Tr = exp( S ) the system will undergo Poincare recurrences ... On such long time scales the second law of thermodynamics does not prevent rare events, which effectively reverse the direction of entropy change. Obviously, the recurrence allows the entire process of cosmology to begin again ... What is more, the sequence of recurrences will stretch into the infinite past and future. ... Starting in a high entropy, "dead" configuration, if we wait long enough, a fluctuation will eventually occur in which the inflaton will wander up to the top of its potential, thus starting a cycle of inflation, re-heating, conventional cosmology and heat death. The frequency of such events is very low. The typical time for a fluctuation to occur is of order Tr = exp( S - S0 ) ... where S is the equilibrium entropy and S0 is the entropy of the fluctuation. The fluctuations we have in mind correspond to early inflationary eras during which the entropy is probably of order 10^10, while the equilibrium entropy is of order 10^120. Thus Tr = exp( 10^120 ) ... dismissing such long times as "unphysical" may be a symptom of extreme temporal provincialism. ...

... the entropy in observable matter in today's universe ... is of order 10^100. This means that the number of microstates that are macroscopically indistinguishable from our world is exp( 10^100 ).

[ As to the Dyson-Kleburn-Susskind view as stated so far, Iagree. However, I disagree with their following statements: ]

But only exp( 10^10 ) of these states could have evolved from the low entropy initial state characterizing the usual inflationary starting point. ... imagine running these states backward in time until they thermalize in the eventual heat bath with entropy 10^120. Among the vast number exp( 10^120 ) of possible initial starting points, a tiny fraction exp( 10^100 ) will evolve into a world like ours. However, all but exp( 10^10 ) of the corresponding trajectories (in phase space) are extremely unstable to tiny perturbations. Changing the state of just a few particles at the beginning of the trajectory will lead to completely different states. ... As an example, consider a state in which we leave everything undisturbed, except that we replace a small fraction of the matter in the universe by an increase in the amount of thermal microwave photons. In particular, we could do this by increasing the temperature of the CMB from 2.7 degrees to 10 degrees. ... It is ... possible that we are missing some important feature that picks out, or weights disproportionally, the recurrences which go through a conventional evolution, beginning with an inflationary era. However, we have no idea what this feature would be. ...".

I, however, do have an idea what such a feature would be: It wouldbe that all universes follow the physics model of D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics and evolve in accord with ZizziQuantum Inflation.

 

ManyUniverses might be so created

 

each corresponding to a TimelikeBrane in 27-dimensional J3(O) = J4(Q)o M-theory and a Spacelike Branein 28-dimensional J4(Q) F-theory.

 

The InflationaryUniverse could be based onComplex Structure with ConformalSymmetry: If the R4 neighborhood (in which the ExpandingInstanton is considered to be embedded) is complexified into8-real-dimensional C4, then the Instanton becomes a bounded complexhomogeneous domain. If the Instanton has the Conformalsymmetry of 15-6-1= 8-real-dimensional Spin(6) / (Spin(4)xU(1))then the Instanton has as its Shilovboundary RP1 x S3 which is the spacetime structure of theD4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics model.

From the HyperDiamond LatticeSpacetime point of view, the Initial Inflationary Universe lookslike a point defect at One Vertex in the Spacetime Lattice of theParent Universe Spacetime. All the links from the One Vertex to othervertices in the Parent Universe Spacetime are broken. The NewUniverse Spacetime grows from the One Vertex by forming New Linksto New Vertices in the form of a New HyperDiamond Lattice Spacetime:

As the New Universe of the HyperDiamondFeynman Checkerboard discrete version of the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model grows, its boundary is always the discreteversion of a 3-sphere S3:

Can the Parent Universecommunicate with the NewUniverse?

A Virtual Graviton can produce links(shown in green) that can reconnect theParent Universe to the Spacetime Lattice Vertex at which theInstanton created the New Universe. Such a Virtual Graviton wouldexist only in some of the Worlds of the Many-Worlds,but the MacroSpacestructure of the Many-Worlds might allow communication.

 

What is the Global Structure of the InflationaryUniverse?

Jeffrey R.Weeks, in astro-ph/9801012, says: "If the universe ismultiply-connected and sufficiently small, then the last scatteringsurface wraps around the universe and intersects itself. Each circleof intersection appears as two distinct circles on the microwave sky.... the matched circles [can be found, as described by Cornish,Spergel, and Starkman in astro-ph/9801212, from thehigh-resolution data to be provided by NASA's Microwave AnisotropyProbe (MAP) in the year 2001, or by the ESA's Planck satellite a fewyears later, and used] to explicitly reconstruct the globaltopology of space.". Roukemaand Blanloeil, in astro-ph/9802083, say: "The space-likehypersurface of the Universe at the present cosmological time is athree-dimensional manifold. A non-trivial global topology of thisspace-like hypersurface would imply that the apparently observableuniverse (the sphere of particle horizon radius) could containseveral images of the single, physical Universe. ... Within a decade,we should know whether or not the topology of the Universe isdetectable, and if so what it is. ...".

The boundary could be RP3 instead of ordinary S3: AsJeffrey Weeks says in The Shape of Space, Real Projective 3-spaceRP3,which can be made by identifying antipodal points of S3, hasElliptic Geometry.

The boundary could be the Quaternionic Manifold instead ofordinary S3: As Jeffrey Weeks says in The Shape of Space, theQuaternionic Manifold, which can be made by opposite faces of a Cubewith a 1 / 4 clockwise turn, has Elliptic Geometry. It iscalled the Quaternionic Manifold because it has QuaternionicSymmetry.

The boundary could be T3 instead of ordinary S3: As JeffreyWeeks says in The Shape of Space, the 3-Torus T3, which can be madeby opposite faces of a Cube with no turn, has EuclideanGeometry.

The boundary could be Seifert-Weber Space instead of ordinaryS3: As Jeffrey Weeks says in The Shape of Space, Seifert-WeberSpace, which can be made by opposite faces of a Dodecahedron with a 3/ 10 clockwise turn, has Hyperbolic Geometry, as do most closed3-manifolds.

The boundary could be the S3#Poincare Dodecahedral Space instead of ordinary S3:S3# is made by taking the quotient of S3 = Spin(3) = SU(2), thedouble cover of SO(3), by the 120-element binary icosahedral group.You can make an S3# by identifying opposite faces of a Dodecahedronwith a 1 / 10 clockwise turn, as described in Chapter 16 of The Shapeof Space, by Jeffrey R. Weeks (Marcel Dekker 1985). S3#, like S3, hasElliptic Geometry. S3# is a natural spinor space, in that youhave to do a 720 degree rotation to get back to the initial state.Jean-Pierrre Luminet, in astro-ph/0501189,entitled "The Shape of Space after WMAP data", says:

"... the recent analysis of CMB data provided by the WMAP satellite suggest a finite universe with the topology of the Poincar´e dodecahedral spherical space. Such a model of a "small universe", the volume of which would represent only about 80 % the volume of the observable universe, offers an observational signature in the form of a predictable topological lens effect on one hand, and rises new issues on the early universe physics on the other hand ...

... cosmic crystallography looks at the 3-dimensional apparent distribution of high redshift sources (e.g. galaxy clusters, quasars) in order to discover repeating patterns in the universal covering space, much like the repeating patterns of atoms observed in a crystal. "Pair Separation Histograms" (PSH) are in most cases able to detect a multiconnected topology of space, in the form of sharp spikes standing out above the noise distribution that is expected in the simply-connected case. ... However ... PSH may provide a topological signal only when the holonomy group of space has Clifford translations, a property which excludes all hyperbolic spaces. ...

... The main limitation of cosmic crystallography is that the presently available catalogs of observed sources at high redshift are not complete enough to perform convincing tests ... Fortunately, the topology of a small Universe may also be detected through its effects on such a "Rosetta stone" of cosmology as is the CMB fossil radiation ...

... The "concordance model" of cosmology describes the Universe as a flat infinite space in eternal expansion, accelerated under the effect of a repulsive "dark energy". The data collected by the NASA satellite WMAP ... combined with other astronomical data ... is marginally compatible with strictly flat space sections. ... Presently ... taken at their face value, WMAP data favor a positively curved space, necessarily of finite volume since all spherical spaceforms possess this property. ...

Now what about space topology ? ... WMAP data ... power spectrum of temperature anisotropies ... exhibits a set of "acoustic" peaks when anisotropy is measured on small and mean scales ... These peaks are remarkably consistent with the infinite flat space hypothesis.

However, at large angular scale ( for CMB spots typically separated by more than 60 degrees ), there is a strong loss of power which deviates significantly from the predictions of the concordance model. ... WMAP has observed a value of the quadrupole 7 times weaker than expected in a flat infinite Universe. ... The octopole ... is also weaker (72 % of the expected value). For larger wavenumbers ... which correspond to temperature fluctuations at small angular scales ... observations are remarkably consistent with the standard cosmological model.

The unusually low quadrupole value means that long wavelengths are missing. ... A ... natural explanation may be because space is not big enough to sustain long wavelengths. ...

... the long wavelengths modes tend to be relatively lowered only in a special family of closed multiconnected spaces called "well-proportioned". ...

... Among the family of well-proportioned spaces, the best fit to the observed power spectrum is the Poincare Dodecahedral Space (hereafter PDS) ... PDS may be represented by a dodecahedron ... whose opposite faces are glued after a 36 degree twist ... Such a space is positively curved, and is a multiconnected variant of the simply-connected hypersphere S3, with a volume 120 times smaller. ... The associated power spectrum, ... strongly depends on the value of the mass-energy density parameter. ... There is a small interval of values within which the spectral fit is ... in agreement with the value of the total density parameter deduced fromWMAP data ( 1.02 +/- 0.02 ). The best fit is obtained for OMEGA_0 = 1.016 ... The result is quite remarkable because the Poincare space has no degree of freedom. ...

... the curvature radius Rc is the same for the simply-connected universal covering space S3 and for the multiconnected PDS. ... a cosmological model with OMEGA_0 = 1.02 is far from being "flat" (i.e. with Rc = 1) ... For the same curvature radius, PDS has a volume 120 times smaller than S3. Therefore, the smallest dimension of the fundamental dodecahedron is only 43 Gpc, and its volume about 80% the volume of the observable universe (namely the volume of the last scattering surface). This implies that some points of the last scattering surface will have several copies. Such a lens effect is purely attributable to topology and can be precisely calculated in the framework of the PDS model. It provides a definite signature of PDS topology ...

... To be confirmed, the PDS model ... must satisfy two experimental tests :

1) A finer analysis of WMAP data, or new data ... will be able to determine the value of the energy density parameter with a precision of 1 %. A value lower than 1.01 will discard the Poincare space as a model for cosmic space, in the sense that the size of the corresponding dodecahedron would become greater than the observable universe and would not leave any observable imprint on the CMB, whereas a value greater than 1.01 would strengthen its cosmological pertinence.

2) If space has a non trivial topology, there must be particular correlations in the CMB, namely pairs of "matched circles" ... The PDS model predicts 6 pairs of antipodal circles with an angular radius less than 35 degrees. ... Cornish et al. (2004) claimed to have found no matched circles on angular sizes greater than 25 degrees, and thus rejected the PDS hypothesis. ... This is a wrong statement because they searched only for antipodal or nearly-antipodal matched circles. However ... for generic topologies ( including the well-proportioned topologies .... ), the matched circles are not back-to-back and space is not globally homogeneous, so that the positions of the matched circles depend on the observer's position in the fundamental polyhedron. The corresponding larger number of degrees of freedom for the circles search in the WMAP data generates a dramatic increase of the computer time, up to values which are out&endash;of&endash;reach of the present facilities. On the other hand, ... the same analysis for smaller circles ... found six pairs of matched circles distributed in a dodecahedral pattern, each circle on an angular size about 11 degrees. This implies OMEGA_0 = 1.010 +/- 0.001 for OMEGA_m = 0.28 +/- 0.02, values which are perfectly consistent with the PDS model. ... Eventually, the second&endash;yearWMAP data, originally expected by February 2004 but delayed for at least one year due to unexpected surprises in the results, may soon bring additional support to a spherical multiconnected space model. ...

... positive curvature ... implies a finite space and sets strong constraints on the number of e-foldings that took place during an inflation phase. It is possible to build models of "low scale" inflation where the inflationary phase is short and leads to a detectable space curvature ... It turns out that, if space is not flat, the possibility of a multiconnected topology is not in contradiction with the general idea of inflation ...

In most cosmological models, it is generally assumed that spatial homogeneity stays valid beyond the horizon scale. ... On this respect, the PDS model .... requires only one expanding bubble universe, of size sufficiently small to be entirely observable. ... spatially closed universes had the advantage to eliminate boundary conditions ... the PDS or a well&endash;proportioned ... universe ... is the only type of model in which the astronomical future could be definitely predicted ...

Maybe the most fundamental issue is to link the present&endash;day topology of space to a quantum origin, since classical general relativity does not allow for topological changes during the course of cosmic evolution. ... some simplified solutions of Wheeler-de Witt equations show that the sum over all topologies involved in the calculation of the wavefunction of the universe is dominated by spaces with small volumes and multiconnected topologies ...".


The D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou physicsmodel has a natural process for Inflationary UniverseCreation.

In the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou physics model picture, the initialInflationary Universe Quantum Fluctuation is very small and very hot,with a Planck Energy temperature in its Planck-size volume. As theInstanton expands, it cools so that its temperature is, like aBlack Hole, inversely proportional toits radius. (Unlike a Black Hole, which has maximal mass for itsvolume, the Instanton temperature is not inversely proportional toits mass.) This produces the hot Big Bang necessary fornuceosynthesis.

Prior to dimensional reduction of spacetime from 8-dimensional to4-dimensional, the Lagrangian for the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou physicsmodel is

where the three terms represent the adjoint, scalar, andhalf-spinor representations of Spin(8) and the base manifold overwhich the Lagrangian is integrated represents the vectorrepresentation,

plus a topological Pontrjagin term.

The Pontrjagin term represents Instantons in 8-dimensionalspacetime that is locally R8, so that the Instantons have as boundarythe 7-sphere S7.

After dimensional reduction to 4-dimensional spacetime, the S7Instanton boundary is factored by the Hopf fibration S3 -> S7-> S4 into an Instanton with S3 boundary in 4-dimensionalspacetime that is locally R4, plus an S4 part related to4-dimensional Internal Symmetry Space.

In addition to the Standard Model, 3 generations of fermions, anda complex U(1) propagator phase,

dimensional reduction also produces a Spin(6) = SU(4) gaugegroup

that is a compact version of the 15-dimensionalConformal Group Spin(4,2), which is generated by 4 conformaltransformations, 1 scale transformations, and 10 Spin(5) = Sp(2)deSitter transformations.

Conformal changes in the spacetime metric can be lifted to thefermion spinor bundle as described in Theorem 5.24 of Lawson andMichelsohn (1989), saying that the Atiyah-Singer Dirac operatorremains essentially invariant under all changes of the metric by theconformal group C(n) = {g in GL(n,R) : g = Lg' for L in R+ and g' inSO(n)}. The conformal group C(n) =Spin(n,2) is in a sense the largest group that respects thespinor bundle on an n-dimensional manifold, which itself depends onthe choice of Riemannian metric. The introduction of a Riemannianmetric amounts to a simultaneous reduction of the structure groupGL(n,R) of the tangent bundle, the cotangent bundle, and their tensorproducts to SO(n). (Lawson and Michelsohn (1989))

 

To get Gravity from the Spin(6) ConformalGroup,

first gauge-fix the 4 dimensions of conformal transformations(thus linking the 4-dimensional SU(2) Higgs scalar to Gravity)and

then gauge-fix the 1-dimensional scale transformation (thussetting the Higgs mechanism mass scale).

After the conformal and scale gauges have been fixed, the Spin(6)= SU(4) conformal Lagrangian becomes a Spin(5) = Sp(2) de SitterLagrangian, from which gravity is obtained by the mechanism ofMacDowell and Mansouri (Phys. Rev. Lett. 38 (1977) 739).

As Nieto, Obregon,and Socorro showed in gr-qc/9402029, the MacDowell-MansouriSpin(0,5) = Sp(2) de Sitter Lagrangian for gravity plus

a Pontrjagin topological term

is equal to

the Lagrangian for gravity in terms of the Ashtekarvariables plus

a cosmological constant term - whichmay vary duringExpansion of the Instanton Universe (Overduinand Cooperstock, in astro-ph/9805260,have described some other cosmological models with variablecosmological constant), plus

an Euler topological term - which counts the number of handles ofa maniforld and for 4-dim spacetime is a 4-form that is proportionalto the square root of the determinant of the 4x4 matrix representingthe curvature 2-form (see sec. 11.4 of Nakahara, Geometry, Topology,and Physics, Adam Hilger 1990).

The Pontrjagin topological term that must be added to theMacDowell-Mansouri Lagrangian to get Ashtekar gravity (with acosmological constant and an Euler topological term) is thePontrjagin term of the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel.

The D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDouPhysics model has conventional local Gravity plus:

an Euler term to count the handles if the universe ismultiply connected, as might be the case if the universe containsclosed timelike loops, such as are described by Gottand Li in their paper Can the Universe CreateItself?;

a Pontrjagin term that can also be used for creation of anew Inflationary Universe; and

a Cosmological ConstantL(t). that can vary during Inflation due to ParticleCreation.

 

WMAP  observation of theCosmic Background Radiation indicates that live in a FlatExpanding Universe with three types of stuff:

ordinary matter - 4% -

- According to a New Scientist (22 March 2003 pp.41-42) article by Govert Schilling:

"... Only around a quarter (1%) of the baryonic mass is ... in objects we can see ... stars, galaxies, and gas clouds ... Up to another quarter (1%) .. may be ...[in]... objects too faint for our telescopes too pick up, such as burned-out stars, small planets, or stars that failed to ignite ... The lost baryons ...[may be]... strung out like cobwebs throughout the cosmos ...

... the Virgo cluster of galaxies ...[is]... beaming out far more extreme-ultraviolet radiation than expected. ...[because]... galaxy clusters ...[are].. filled with gas as hot as 10 million kelvin ...[which]... gives off high-energy X-rays, not lower-energy ultraviolet radiation ... Richard Lieu ... suspected that much cooler gas was being sucked into the galaxy cluster from intergalactic space. ...[if so]... intergalactic space ... is filled with a wispy gas of baryons ...

... Long before galaxies began to form, 3 billion years after the big bang, baryonic matter was spread throughout the universe ... the gas was dominated by hydrogen ... in today's Universe, [some of] the clouds of hydrogen ...[has been]... eaten up during galaxy formation ...

... Computer simulations ... show that ... dark matter ... tends to be ... eventually drawn out into filaments ...[that]... crisscross each other to form a giant cosmic cobweb. ... the densest knots in the web turn into ... congregations of galaxies ... According to Cen and Ostriker's [computer] simulations ... Most of the baryons ... are still in intergalactic space, but ... are too hot to spot easily. ... the process of galaxy formation sends shock waves through intergalactic space, heating the gas to about 1 milion kelvin. ... [the] baryons [are] spread so thinly ... that they cannot transfer heat to each other ...[or]... cool efficiently. ... they .... would beam out low-energy X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet radiation. ...

... theory predicts ... that ... highly ionized oxygen ... produced in the first generation of stars, which later exploded, scattering their contents like confetti throughout the Universe ...[among the lost baryons] ... Tripp and Savage ... found that ... radiation from ... quasars was being absorbed by oxygen ions ... in intergalactic space. ...".

cold dark matter (such as blackholes,ranging in size from the stable Planckmass to Jupiter mass, andpossibly some gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds) - 23% ; and

a Cosmological Constant L(t) - 73%.

 

What does the cosmology ofthe D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics modelsay about those ratios?

In the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel, Gravity and the CosmologicalConstant come from the MacDowell-Mansouri Mechanism and the15-dimensional Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) ConformalGroup, which is made up of:

According to gr-qc/9809061by R. Aldrovandi and J. G. Peireira:

"... By the process of Inonu&endash;Wigner group contraction with R -> oo ...[where R ]... the de Sitter pseudo-radius ... , both de Sitter groups ... with metric ... (-1,+1,+1,+1,-1) ...[or]... (-1,+1,+1,+1,+1) ... are reduced to the Poincare group P, and both de Sitter spacetimes are reduced to the Minkowski space M. As the de Sitter scalar curvature goes to zero in this limit, we can say that M is a spacetime gravitationally related to a vanishing cosmological constant.

On the other hand, in a similar fashion but taking the limit R -> 0, both de Sitter groups are contracted to the group Q, formed by a semi&endash;direct product between Lorentz and special conformal transformation groups, and both de Sitter spaces are reduced to the cone&endash;space N, which is a space with vanishing Riemann and Ricci curvature tensors. As the scalar curvature of the de Sitter space goes to infinity in this limit, we can say that N is a spacetime gravitationally related to an infinite cosmological constant.

If the fundamental spacetime symmetry of the laws of Physics is that given by the de Sitter instead of the Poincare group, the P-symmetry of the weak cosmological&endash;constant limit and the Q-symmetry of the strong cosmological&endash;constant limit can be considered as limiting cases of the fundamental symmetry.

Minkowski and the cone&endash;space can be considered as dual to each other, in the sense that their geometries are determined respectively by a vanishing and an infinite cosmological constants. The same can be said of their kinematical group of motions: P is associated to a vanishing cosmological constant and Q to an infinite cosmological constant.

The dual transformation connecting these two geometries is the spacetime inversion x^u -> x^u / sigma^2 . Under such a transformation, the Poincare group P is transformed into the group Q, and the Minkowski space M becomes the cone&endash;space N. The points at infinity of M are concentrated in the vertex of the cone&endash;space N, and those on the light&endash;cone of M becomes the infinity of N. It is interesting to notice that, despite presenting an infinite scalar curvature, the concepts of space isotropy and equivalence between inertial frames in the cone&endash;space N are those of special relativity. The difference lies in the concept of uniformity as it is the special conformal transformations, and not ordinary translations, which act transitively on N. ...

... in the light of the recent supernovae results ... favoring possibly quite large values for the cosmological constant, the above results may acquire a further relevance to Cosmology ...".

Since the Cosmological Constant comes from the 10 Rotation, Boost,and Special Conformal generators of the ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2), the fractional part of our Universe ofthe Cosmological Constant should be about 10 / 15 = 67%.

Since Black Holes, including Dark Matter PrimordialBlack Holes, are curvature singularities in our 4-dimensionalphysical spacetime, and since Einstein-Hilbert curvature comes fromthe 4 Translations of the 15-dimensional ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) through the MacDowell-Mansouri Mechanism(in which the generatorscorresponding to the 3 Rotations and 3 Boosts do not propagate),the fractional part of our Universe of Dark Matter PrimordialBlack Holes should be about 4 / 15 = 27%.

Since Ordinary Matter gets mass from the Higgs mechanism which isrelated to the 1 Scale Dilatation of the 15-dimensional ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2), the fractional part of our universe ofOrdinary Matter should be about 1 / 15 = 6%.

Therefore, our Flat Expanding Universe should, according to thecosmology of the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model, have, roughly:

67% Cosmological Constant -

- related to GraviPhotons of SpecialConformal transformations and Akira/TetsuoEnergy.

27% Dark Matter -

- such as black holes, rangingin size from the stable Planckmass to Jupiter mass;possibly some gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds; and/oreffective contributions from MOND.

6% Ordinary Matter -

- According to a New Scientist (22 March 2003pp. 41-42) article by Govert Schilling: "... Only around(1%) ... is ... in objects we can see ... stars, galaxies,and gas clouds ... Up to another ... (1%) .. may be...[in]... objects too faint for our telescopes too pickup, such as burned-out stars, small planets, or stars that failedto ignite ... The ...[ other 4% ] ...[maybe]... strung outlike cobwebsthroughout the cosmos ...".

In my opinion,

the WMAPobservations are consistentwith the cosmology of theD4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel.

 

 

Also, there may be gravitationalinteraction from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds.

Aldrovandi andPereira, in gr-qc/9809061, show that deSitter groups of the MacDowell-Mansouri Gravity mechanism candescribe Special Relativity in SpaceTimes with varying CosmologicalConstant. They use Inonu-Wigner contractions of de Sitter groups andspaces to show that in a weak cosmological-constant limit the deSitter groups are contracted to the Poincare group, and the de Sitterspaces are reduced to the Minkowski space, while in the strongcosmological-constant limit the de Sitter groups are contracted toanother group which has the same abstract Lie algebra of the Poincaregroup, and the de Sitter spaces are reduced to a 4-dimensionalcone-space of infinite scalar curvature, but vanishing Riemann andRicci curvature tensors, in which the special conformaltransformations act transitively and the equivalence between inertialframes is that of special relativity. If the fundamental spacetimesymmetry of the laws of Physics is that given by the de Sitterinstead of the Poincare group, the P-symmetry of the weakcosmological constant limit and the Q-symmetry of the strongcosmological constant limit can be considered as limiting cases ofthe fundamental symmetry. Minkowski and the cone-space can beconsidered as dual to each other, in the sense that their geometriesare determined respectively by vanishing and infinite cosmologicalconstants. The same can be said of their kinematical group ofmotions.

The creation of the Inflationary Universeby Quantum Fluctuation has some similarities to the quantum conformalfluctuation approach of Narlikar and Padmanabhan (1986) and Gunzig,Geheniau, and Prigogine (1987) and Gunzig(1997)).

For a movie that shows the creation of a new universe from ouruniverse, see Akira.

Since, after dimensional reduction of spacetime from 8 to 4dimensions, the Pontrjagin term goes into the Spin(6) conformalgravity sector of the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDouPhysics model, it does not go to the SU(3) color force sector.Therefore, the SU(3) color force Sector has no THETA-term and theD4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics model hasno theoretical THETA-CPproblem.

 


What about creation of matter(and radiation) in the Inflationary Era?

The relationship between theEinstein curvature tensor G of Gravity, the stress-enregy tensor T ofthe particles and fields of the Standard Model, and a variablecosmological constant LAMBDA can be seen from the Einsteinequation

G = 8 pi T - LAMBDA g

Overduin and Cooperstock, in astro-ph/9805260,have described some other cosmological models with variablecosmological constant.

During its Inflationary Era, the InflationaryUniverse has an effective Cosmological Constant L(t) that causesparticle creation (qualitatively somewhat similarly to the C-fieldof Hoyle's Steady-State cosmology).

From the fundamental Planck-lengthHyperDiamond Lattice spacetime point of view, during theInflationary Era, new lattice vertices appear uniformly distributedamong the old lattice vertices.

Without the new vertices due to Expansion, virtual QuantumFluctuation particle-antiparticle pairs appear, move apart for awhile, and then come back together and annihilate each other.

If a new vertex alters spacetime near the path of one of such apair, and thus alters its path so that it does not annihilate theother member of the pair, then the virtual Quantum Fluctuation cancreate new real pairs of Planck-Mass BlackHoles, which can merge with pre-existing BlackHoles to form larger Black Holes, which can then decay andproduce various real particles and antiparticles.

If a Black Hole has greater than the stable minimum Planck mass,it will decay with a lifetime that is proportional to the cube of itsmass. For a Black Hole to survive about 20 billion years, it musthave a mass of at least 2 x 10^14 grams. For comparison, the Earthhas mass of 6 x 10^27 grams and the Sun has a mass of 2 x 10^33grams. A Black Hole of the mass of theSun would have a radius (proportional to its mass) of about 10^5 cm,or 1 km.

The temperature of a Black Hole increases as it evaporates, with atemperature that is inversely proportional to its mass, and,equivalently, inversely proportional to its radius. A Black Hole ofthe mass of the Sun would have a temperature of 10^(-6) degreesK.

Since small Black Holes are hot, any particles (fermions, bosons,or Higgs scalars) emitted by small Black Holes would be emitted athigh temperature.

Why are there more particles than antiparticles in ouruniverse?

To produce particle/antiparticle asymmetry, you need processesthat are non-equilibrium and that are also CP-violating. Two suchprocesses are:

The decay of Black Holes. Accordingto Turner (1979) and Dolgov (1980), Black Hole decay could accountfor the particle-antiparticle asymmetry and the baryon-photon ratioof 5 x 10^(-10) that is observed now.

Another possible mechanism for particle-antiparticle asymmetry isthe set of interactions that may occur at the weakforce phase transition.

 

Since cold Black Holes interact withthe ordinary matter only gravitationally, their evolution isdiscussed separately from the evolution of hotordinary matter (fermions, bosons, and Higgs scalars).

 

Primordial Black Holes mayretain the Fundamental Correlation ofspace-like sections and time-like axis of the Cosmological ExpandingInstanton from which our universe came.

 


 

Immediately After Inflation - Reheating:

At the end of inflation:

Each qubit at the end of inflation corresponds to a PlanckMass Black Hole, which in theD4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics model undergoes decoherence and,

in a process corresponding to Reheating in the StandardInflationary Model,

each qubit transforms into2^64 = 10^19 elementary first-generation fermionparticle-antiparticle pairs.  

The resulting 2^64 x 2^64 = 2^128 = 10^19 x 10^19 = 10^38 fermionpairs populating the Universe Immediately After Inflation constitutesa Zizzi Quantum Register of order n_reh = 10^38 = 2^128.

Since, as Paola Zizzi says in gr-qc/0007006,( with some editing by me denoted by [ ] ): "... the quantumregister grows with time. ... At time Tn =(n+1) Tplanck the quantum gravity register will consist of (n+1)^2qubits. [ Let N = (n+1)^2 ] ...", we have the number ofqubits at Reheating:

Nreh = ( n_reh )^2 = ( 12^128 )^2 = 2^256 = 10^77

Since each qubit at Reheating should correspond, not to PlanckMass Black Holes, but to fermionparticle-antiparticle pairs that average about 0.66 GeV, we havethe result that

the number of particles in our Universe at Reheating isabout 10^77 nucleons.

After Reheating, our Universe enters the Radiation-Dominated Era,and, since there is no continuous creation, particle productionstops, so

the 10^77 nucleon BaryonicMass of our Universe has been mostly constant sinceReheating,

and will continue to be mostly constant until ProtonDecay.

In the papergr-qc/0007006, Paola Zizzi says [withchanges by me enclosed in square brackets - the paperstates that at the end of inflation En = Eplanck / 10^9 = 10^11 GeV,but since I consider Eplanck to be 10^19 GeV, I use the value 10^10GeV]: "... The discrete energy spectrum of the de Sitterhorizon states at time Tn = ( n+1 ) Tplanck ... is En = Eplanck / (n+1 ) where Eplanck = 1.2 x 10^19 GeV is the Planck energy ...[sothat at]... the decoherence time ... Tn = 10^(-34) sec ... thetime when inflation ends ... the corresponding energy is [ Edecoh= Eplanck / 10^9 = 10^10 GeV ] ...".

However, the Reheating process raises the energy/temperature atReheating to Ereh = 10^14 GeV, the geometric mean of the Eplanck =10^19 GeV and Edecoh = 10^10 GeV:

Ereh = sqrt( Eplanck Edecoh ) = sqrt( 10^29 ) GeV = 10^14GeV.

 


In the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel,

Protons Decay

by Virtual Black Holes overabout 10^64 years,

according to Hawkingand his students who have studied thephysical consequences of creation of virtual pairs of Planck-energyBlack Holes,

and

by LeptoQuark X-bosons over about10^31 years.

 

  
 

References

John Gribbin, in his book In Search of the Big Bang (Bantam 1986,page 374), says that Einstein was stopped in the street becauseGeorge Gamow had just told Einstein about the idea of ceating theUniverse from Nothing, which had been just then (in the 1940s) beenthought of by Pascual Jordan. See the autobiography My World Line ofGeorge Gamow.

 

 

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