Tony Smith's Home Page


Cosmology - 2001- 2003,

including the Multipole Structure ofthe CMBR,

based on COBE, SupernovaIa, Boomerang and Maxima, WMAP

In Two World Systems Revisited: AComparison of Plasma Cosmology and the Big Bang, by Eric J.Lerner, author of The Big Bang Never Happened, Viking Press,New York, 1992, compares consensus Big Bang Cosmology withElectromagnetic Plasma Cosmology.

COBE - Hubble Constant - ExpandingUniverse:

NOW we are at T = 10^(-3) eV = 3 degK as seen by COBE. Incertain regions (accretion disks of black holes, particle collisions,centers of stars, etc.) the local temperature is muchhigher.


Michael Rowan-Robinson, in astro-ph/0012026,advocates a /\ = 0 model, which is ruled out by Supernovaobservations. However, his article has useful descriptions ofcosmological phenomena, including the Hubble diagram ...[givingan]... estimate for Ho, 63 +/- 6 km/s/Mpc

... for OMEGAo = 0.3; /\o = 0.7, the age becomes 15.0 +/- 1.4 Gyr....[which].... can be compared with

  • the estimate of Chaboyer et al (1998) for the age of the globular clusters, 11.5 +/- 1.3 Gyr,
  • to which must be added the time to form the globular clusters, 0.2-2 Gyr, depending on the redshift of formation. ...

... Fig 3 shows the Hubble diagram, velocity versus luminositydistance, for snIa ... filledcircles ... , SZ clusters ... open circles ... and gravitational lenstime delay systems ... crosses ... .

The theoretical curves are shown for an assumed Hubble constant of63 km/s/Mpc. ...".  


A November 2000 analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background andCosmic Parameters, ( astro-ph/0011378) says:

"... All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probabilityon the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to

both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. ... Table 1.Cosmological parameter values and their 1-sigma errors are shown,determined after marginalizing over the other 6 cosmological and 4 +experimental parameters, for B98+Maxima-I+prior-CMB and the weakprior, 0.45 < h < 0:9, age > 10 Gyr. The LSS prior was alsodesigned to be weak. ... the last line shows the limit on wQ if weallow it to vary (the other parameters do not move much). ... Thedetections in the table are clearly very stable if extra "prior"probabilities for LSS andSN1 are included, and are also stable withmuch stronger priors on h, but do move if the BBN-derived 0.019 +/-0.002 prior is imposed. If OMEGAtot is varied,

... Though the CDM density is in the expected range ( OMEGAcdm h^2= 0.17 +/- 0.02 ),

the baryon density OMEGAb h^2 = 0.030 +/- 0.005 is somewhat abovethe independent 0.019 +/- 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates.

CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy ( OMEGA/\ =0.66 +/- 0.06 ) at the same level as from supernova (SN1)observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of statelimited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < -0.7 cf .the wQ = -1 cosmologicalconstant case. ...".


Supernova and CMBresults indicate that our universe is Flat withCold Dark Matter and a Cosmological Constant.

In astro-ph/0008057,Evidence from Type Ia Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe,Filippenko and Riess say:

"... SNe Ia are believed to result from the thermonuclear disruption of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, while SNe II come from core collapse in massive supergiant stars. ...

Low-redshift SNe Ia ( z < 0.1 ) demonstrate that the Hubble expansion is linear, that H0 = 65 +/- 2 (statistical) km s^(-1) Mpc^(-1), and that the properties of dust in other galaxies are similar to those of dust in the Milky Way.

We find that the light curves of high-redshift (z = 0.3 to 1) SNe Ia are stretched in a manner consistent with the expansion of space; similarly, their spectra exhibit slower temporal evolution ( by a factor of 1+z ) than those of nearby SNe Ia.

The luminosity distances of our first set of 16 high-redshift SNe Ia are, on average, 10 to 15% farther than expected in a low mass-density ( M = 0.2 ) universe without a cosmological constant. Preliminary analysis of our second set of 9 SNe Ia is consistent with this.

Our work supports models with positive cosmological constant and a current acceleration of the expansion. ... The dynamical age of the Universe is estimated to be 14.2 +/- 1.7 Gyr, consistent with the ages of globular star clusters. ...".


According to a2 April 2001 article by Robin Lloyd on"... The Hubble Space Telescope recently captured light from asupernova ... SN1997ff ... located farther from Earth than anypreviously seen ... 10 billion light-years from Earth. ...

... The team of astronomers, led by Riess, made the discovery byanalyzing hundreds of images taken by Hubble in infrared and visiblelight to study how galaxies formed. Fortuitously, one of the galaxiescontained a supernova in Ursa Major previously discovered byastronomers Ron Gilliland of STScI and Mark Phillips of the CarnegieInstitutions of Washington. ...[ According to a4 April 2001 article by David Whitehouse on BBCNews Online: "... The ancient stellar detonation was detected bydigitally subtracting a before and after image of a faint, yellowishgalaxy seen in the now famous Hubble "deep field" image. Thisdifference image shows the supernova ...".]... "The problem wasthere was only a single measurement of the supernova made when it wasdiscovered," Riess said. "This was not enough to know if thissupernova was old, young, at its brightest -- just the information weneed to know how bright it is intrinsically and figure out how faraway it is." ...

... ...".

According to a2 April 2001 press release from STScI:"... the universe only recently began speeding up, a discovery madeabout three years ago when the unusually dim light of several distantsupernovas suggested the universe is expanding more quickly than inthe past, but there were alternate explanations. The more distantsupernova [ SN1997ff ] ( redshift z=1.7 ) refutes thesealternatives and offers the first ... observational evidence that



According to astro-ph/0011378:"... The Boomerang 150A GHz map (i.e., for one of 16 bolometers) andthe multifrequency Wiener-filtered Maxima-I map, its 124 squaredegrees drawn to scale, are shown ...

... Only the 440 square degrees within the central rectangle ofthe entire 1800 square degrees covered by Boomerang were used in theanalysis. ...".


Boomerang (balloon observations of millimetricextragalactic radiation and geomagnetics) results reported by deBernadis et al in Nature 404 (27April 2000) 955-959 show that "... Tiny inhomogeneities in theearly Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in theform of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropiescontain information about ... the total energy density and curvatureof the Universe. We compute the angular power spectrum of themicrowave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole(I_peak = 197 +/- 6), with an amplitude delta_T _200 = (69 +/- 8)microK. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark mattermodels in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favoured by standardinflationary models. ...

... Our data clearly show the presence of power beyond the peak atl =197, corresponding to smaller-scale structures. ...

... Each point ... has negligible correlations with the adjacentpoints. The error bars ... grow at large l due to the signalattenuation ... The current 1 minute uncertainty in the angularresolution of the measurement creates an additional uncertainty -indicated by the distance between the ends of the red error bars andthe blue horizontal lines - that is completely correlated and islargest (11%) at l = 600. The green points show the power spectrum ofa difference map ... Signals originating from the sky shoulddisappear in this map, so this is a test for contamination in thedata ... The solid curve has parameters

( OMEGA_b, OMEGA_m, OMEGA_lambda, n_s, h ) =

= ( 0.05, 0.31, 0.75, 0.95, 0.70 )

It is the best-fit model for the Boomerang test flight data and isshown for comparison only. The model that best fits the new datareported here will be presented elsewhere. ...".

Wayne Hu, in News and Views,Nature 404 (27 April 2000) 939-940, says "... Perhaps the mostintriguing aspect of the Boomerang results is the lack of a prominentsecond peak at half the angular scale of the first. ... [The]... standard model ... is strongly inconsistent with the observedlack of a prominent second peak in the power spectrum of the cosmicmicrowave background. ... The key to resolving the mystery of thesecond peak will be measurements of higher precision and resolution...".

It seems to me that the second peak is showing up in data fromMaxima, and that further data will show that the second peak isreally there. See thepaper astro-ph/0007333 Cosmology from MAXIMA-1, BOOMERANG &COBE/DMR CMB Observations, which says: "... ¨Analysis of thecombined data yields 68% (95%) confidence limits on

These data are consistent with inflationary initial conditions forstructure formation. Taken together with other cosmologicalobservations, they imply the existence of both non-baryonic darkmatter and dark energy in the universe. ... The B98 and Maxima-1angular power spectra are shown ...

along with some best-fit models. ... the curves show the best fitmodel in the joint parameter estimation with weak priors [blacksolid line] and the best fit with OMEGAtot = 1[magenta dashed line]. ... Theyremain the best fits when the large scale structure prior is added,and when the SN prior is added the OMEGAtot = 1 model becomes thebest fit in both cases. ... Both teams are analyzing additional datawhich may significantly reduce the errors in the region of the powerspectrum where further peaks are expected. ...".

Marc Kamionkowski and Ari Buchalter, in astro-ph/0001045,say: "... Contours of the multipole moment l_2 at which the secondpeak in the CMB power spectrum occurs. ...

... The heavy solid curves (blue) show contours of l_2 =475, 500,525, 575, and 625 for the central value, OMEGAb h^2 = 0.019, of thebaryon-to-photon ratio. The lower lighter (red) curves and the upperlighter (green) curves show the same for OMEGAb h^2 = 0.015 andOMEGAb h^2 = 0.023, respectively. The horizontal and vertical shadedregions are those allowed, respectively, by HST measurements of theHubble constant and by supernova results. ...".


The second peak is indeed shown in astro-ph/0104460,A measurement by BOOMERANG of angular power spectrum of multiplepeaks in the the cosmic microwave background, by Netterfield etal, who say: "... The "no priors" best fit model ( OMEGA_tot =1.15; Ho = 42; OMEGA_/\ = 0.7; OMEGA_b h^2 = 0.020; OMEGA_c h 2 =0.060; to = 20 Gyrs ) fits the central values very well with nocalibration or beam shift, but has an unacceptably low value forHo.

Once the weak priors are invoked, the remaining models takeadvantage of the uncertainty in calibration and beam size to maintaina good fit. ...".


also shown in astro-ph/0104490,COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER EXTRACTION FROM THE FIRST SEASON OFOBSERVATIONS WITH DASI, by Pryke et al, who say: "... The DASIfirst-season angular power spectrum in ninebands. The DMR information is showncompressed to the single lowest l [magenta ] point.


The solid (red) line is the bestfitting model which falls on our grid, while the dashed(green) shows the concordance model

( OMEGA_b; OMEGA_cdm; OMEGA_/\ ; tc; ns; h ) =

= ( 0.05; 0.35; 0.60; 0; 1.00; 0.65 ). ...".


In astro-ph/0007079,Vinod Johri says (with respect to /\CDM cosmology of a cosmologicalconstant /\ with Cold Dark Matter):

"... we regard the universe to be filled up with a mixture of cold dark matter and the vacuum energy represented by the cosmological constant /\ which plays the role of dark energy and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. ...

cosmic expansion slows down as long as OMEGA_n > 2OMEGA_/\ ( i.e rho_n > 2 rho_/\ ); the clumping of matter into galaxies takes place during this period.

Transition to accelerated expansion occurs when the deceleration parameter q < 0 which corresponds to OMEGA_/\ > 1/3 . It marks the beginning of the /\-dominated phase during which the universe goes on expanding faster and faster and ultimately enters the de Sitter phase of exponential expansion. ...

Since /\ remains constant throughout, ... constraints put theoretical limits on the plausible values of /\.

For instance,the clumping of matter into galaxies can take place during the cosmic deceleration phase (q > 0) when the gravitational attraction is dominant over cosmic repulsion. It follows ... that during the galaxy formation era ... in terms of redshift z with age to of the universe taken as 13 billion years, we get

/\ < 4.2 x 10^(-57) ( 1 + z )^3

Assuming that the galaxy formation continues up to redshift z = 2, we derive the upper limit of /\

/\ < 33.5 x 10^(-57)

The transition to accelerated expansion takes place at t = tc corresponding to redshift z = zc ... with q = 0. At the present epoch (z = 0), the cosmic expansion is accelerating (q < 0). This yields the lower limit of /\ as given by

/\ > 4.2 x 10^(-57)

... Taking the observational value ...

/\ = 3 Ho^2 OMEGA_/\ / c^2 = 7.74 x 10^(-57)

based on the value of the Hubble constant Ho = 65 km/Mpc/s and OMEGA_/\ = 0:65. ...

... the transition to the accelerating expansion phase in /\CDM cosmology occurs when rho_m = 9.3 x 10(-30) gm/cm^3 which corresponds to zc = 0.54. ...".


In astro-ph/0207286,Odman, Melchiorri, Hobson, and Lasenby say:

"... The recent measurements of the power spectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies are in agreement with the simplest inflationary scenario and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints. ... the detection of power around the expected third peak, on arc-minutes scales, provides a new and independent evidence for the presence of non-baryonic dark matter ... The actual data is therefore suggesting that our present cosmological model represents a beautiful and elegant theory able to explain most of the observations ... However, these results rely on the assumption of a class of models based on primordial adiabatic perturbations, cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. ... In the present paper we check to what extent modifications to the standard /\-CDM scenario are needed by current CMB observations with two complementary approaches: First, we provide a model-independent analysis by fitting the actual data with a phenomenological function and characterizing the observed multiple peaks. Phenomenological fits have been extensively used in the past and recent CMB analyses ... Our analysis differs in two ways: we include the new data from the VSA and CBI experiments and we make use of a Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) algorithm, which allows us to investigate a large number of parameter simultaneously (15 in our case). We then compare the position, relative amplitude and width of the peaks with the same features expected in a 4-parameters model template of /\-CDM spectra. By doing a peak-by-peak comparison between the theory and the phenomenological fit which is based on a much wider set of parameters, we then verify in a systematic way the agreement with the standard theoretical expectations. ...

... Using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach to Bayesian inference and a low curvature model template we then check for the presence of new physics and/or systematics in the CMB data. We find an almost perfect consistency between the phenomenological fits and the standard /\-CDM models. However, the curvature of the secondary peaks is weakly constrained by the present data. The improved spectral resolution expected from future satellite experiments is clearly warranted for a definitive test of the scenario. ...".





WMAP ratio calculated as 75.3 :20.3 : 4.5

According to an11 February 2003 Science@NASA web article: "... NASA todayreleased ... A full-sky map of the oldest light in the universe.

Colors indicate "warmer" (red) and "cooler" (blue) spots. ... Oneof the biggest surprises revealed in the data is the firstgeneration of stars to shine in the universe first ignited only 200million years after the big bang, much earlier than manyscientists had expected. In addition, the new portrait precisely pegsthe age of the universe at 13.7 billion years, with aremarkably small one percent margin of error. The WMAPteam found that the big bang and Inflation theories continue toring true. The contents of the universe include

The light we see today, as the cosmic microwave background, hastraveled over 13 billion years to reach us. Within this light areinfinitesimal patterns that mark the seeds of what later grew intoclusters of galaxies and the vast structurewe see all around us today.

Patterns in the big bang afterglow were frozen in place only380,000 years after the big bang, a number nailed down by this latestobservation. These patterns are tiny temperature differences withinthis extraordinarily evenly dispersed microwave light bathing theuniverse, which now averages a frigid 2.73 degrees above absolutezero temperature. WMAP resolves slight temperature fluctuations,which vary by only millionths of a degree. ...

... WMAP ... Launched on June 30, 2001, ... maintains adistant orbit about the second Lagrange Point, or "L2," a million miles from Earth. ... WMAP is named in honor of DavidWilkinson of Princeton University, a ... WMAP team member who died inSeptember 2002...".

According to aMAP web page: "... WMAP does not see the light of the first starsdirectly, but has detected a polarized signal that is the tell-talesignature of the energy released by the first stars. A sequence froma NASA animation.

Frame one depicts temperature fluctuations (shown as colordifferences) in the oldest light in the universe, as seen today byWMAP. Temperature fluctuations correspond to slight clumping ofmaterial in the infant Universe, which ultimately led to the vaststructures of galaxies we seetoday.

Frame two shows matter condensing as gravity pulls matter fromregions of lower density to regions of higher density.

Frame three captures the era of the first stars, 200 million yearsafter the Big Bang. Gas has condensed and heated up to temperatureshigh enough to initiate nuclear fusion, the engine of the stars.

Frame four shows more stars turning on. Galaxies form along thosefilaments first seen in frame two, a web of structure.

Frame five depicts the modern era, billions upon billions of starsand galaxies... all from the seeds planted in the infant Universe....".


According to anotherMAP web page: "... We have compared and combined the new WMAPdata with other diverse cosmic measurements (galaxy clustering,Lyman-alpha cloud clustering, supernovae, etc.), and we have found anew unified understanding of universe:


According to yetanother MAP web page: "... If the density of matter and energy inthe universe is less than the critical density, then space is openand negatively curved like the surface of a saddle. If the densityexactly equals the critical density, then space is flat like a sheetof paper. If the density is greater than critical density, then spaceis closed and positively curved like the surface of a sphere. In thislatter case, light paths diverge and eventually converge back to apoint. The Inflationary Theory, an extension of the Big Bangtheory, predicts that density is very close to the critical density,producing a flat universe, like a sheet of paper. WMAP hasdetermined, within the limits of instrument error, that the universeis flat. ...".



In the ConsensusCosmology, we live in a Flat Expanding Universe with threetypes of stuff:


ordinary matter( according to WMAP -4% ) - According to a New Scientist (22 March2003 pp. 41-42) article by Govert Schilling:

"... Only around a quarter (1%) of the baryonic mass is ... in objects we can see ... stars, galaxies, and gas clouds ... Up to another quarter (1%) .. may be ...[in]... objects too faint for our telescopes too pick up, such as burned-out stars, small planets, or stars that failed to ignite ... The lost baryons ...[may be]... strung out like cobwebs throughout the cosmos ...

... the Virgo cluster of galaxies ...[is]... beaming out far more extreme-ultraviolet radiation than expected. ...[because]... galaxy clusters ...[are].. filled with gas as hot as 10 million kelvin ...[which]... gives off high-energy X-rays, not lower-energy ultraviolet radiation ... Richard Lieu ... suspected that much cooler gas was being sucked into the galaxy cluster from intergalactic space. ...[if so]... intergalactic space ... is filled with a wispy gas of baryons ...

... Long before galaxies began to form, 3 billion years after the big bang, baryonic matter was spread throughout the universe ... the gas was dominated by hydrogen ... in today's Universe, [some of] the clouds of hydrogen ...[has been]... eaten up during galaxy formation ...

... Computer simulations ... show that ... dark matter ... tends to be ... eventually drawn out into filaments ...[that]... crisscross each other to form a giant cosmic cobweb. ... the densest knots in the web turn into ... congregations of galaxies ... According to Cen and Ostriker's [computer] simulations ... Most of the baryons ... are still in intergalactic space, but ... are too hot to spot easily. ... the process of galaxy formation sends shock waves through intergalactic space, heating the gas to about 1 milion kelvin. ... [the] baryons [are] spread so thinly ... that they cannot transfer heat to each other ...[or]... cool efficiently. ... they .... would beam out low-energy X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet radiation. ...

... theory predicts ... that ... highly ionized oxygen ... produced in the first generation of stars, which later exploded, scattering their contents like confetti throughout the Universe ...[among the lost baryons] ... Tripp and Savage ... found that ... radiation from ... quasars was being absorbed by oxygen ions ... in intergalactic space. ...".


cold dark matter such as blackholes, ranging in size from the stable Planckmass to Jupiter mass;possibly some gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds; and/oreffective contributions from MOND( according to WMAP - 23% ); and


a Cosmological ConstantL(t) ( according to WMAP - 73%).


The ratio 73 : 23 : 4 is only valid NOW, at our presenttime in the evolution of our Universe. In astro-ph/0207199,Max Tegmark describes that evolution, saying:

"... Space is ... a dynamic entity with curvature, fluctuations and a rich life of its own ... Spectacular new measurements of the cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, type Ia supernovae, large-scale structure, spectra of the Lyman alpha forest, stellar dynamics and x-ray binaries are probing the properties of spacetime over 22 orders of magnitude in scale. ...

...[In the above figure, the]... Solid curve shows the concordance model for the evolution of the cosmic mean density rho(z) proportional to H(z)^2. This curve uniquely characterizes the spacetime expansion history. The horizontal bars indicate the rough redshift ranges over which the various cosmological probes ... are expected to constrain this function. Because the redshift scalings of all density contributions except that of dark energy are believed to be straight lines with known slopes in this plot (power laws), combining into a simple quartic polynomial, an estimate of the dark energy density rho_X(z) can be readily extracted from this curve. Specifically,

Measurement errors are for current SN Ia constraints (yellow band) and a forecast for what the SNAP satellite can do (green band), assuming flat space as favored by the CMB. Error bars are for a non-parametric reconstruction with SNAP. ... Current measurements are consistent with an infinite flat everlasting universe containing about

30% cold dark matter,

65% dark energy and

at least two distinct populations of black holes ... Supermassive black holes ... weighing 10^6 - 10^10 solar masses at the centers of ... galaxies ...[and]... Stellar-mass black holes ... weighting [sic] too much to be a white dwarf or a neutron star ( > 3 [solar masses]), and being too faint (often invisible) to be a normal star. ... the similarities between galactic and stellar accretion disk and jet observations are so striking that a single unified explanation seems natural ... There is thus strong evidence for existence of black holes in two separate mass ranges, each making up perhaps 10^(-6) or 10^(-5) of all mass in the universe.

... [other] black holes have been speculated about ... both microscopic ones created in the early universe perhaps making up the dark matter and transient ones constituting "spacetime foam" on the Planck scale ...".


What does the cosmologyof the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel say about the ratio 73 : 23 : 4 at the timeNOW ?

In the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel, Gravity and the CosmologicalConstant come from the MacDowell-Mansouri Mechanism and the15-dimensional Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) ConformalGroup, which is made up of:

According to gr-qc/9809061by R. Aldrovandi and J. G. Peireira:

"... By the process of Inonu-Wigner group contraction with R -> oo ...[where R ]... the de Sitter pseudo-radius ... , both de Sitter groups ... with metric ... (-1,+1,+1,+1,-1) ...[or]... (-1,+1,+1,+1,+1) ... are reduced to the Poincare group P, and both de Sitter spacetimes are reduced to the Minkowski space M. As the de Sitter scalar curvature goes to zero in this limit, we can say that M is a spacetime gravitationally related to a vanishing cosmological constant.

On the other hand, in a similar fashion but taking the limit R -> 0, both de Sitter groups are contracted to the group Q, formed by a semi-direct product between Lorentz and special conformal transformation groups, and both de Sitter spaces are reduced to the cone-space N, which is a space with vanishing Riemann and Ricci curvature tensors. As the scalar curvature of the de Sitter space goes to infinity in this limit, we can say that N is a spacetime gravitationally related to an infinite cosmological constant.

If the fundamental spacetime symmetry of the laws of Physics is that given by the de Sitter instead of the Poincare group, the P-symmetry of the weak cosmological-constant limit and the Q-symmetry of the strong cosmological-constant limit can be considered as limiting cases of the fundamental symmetry.

Minkowski and the cone-space can be considered as dual to each other, in the sense that their geometries are determined respectively by a vanishing and an infinite cosmological constants. The same can be said of their kinematical group of motions: P is associated to a vanishing cosmological constant and Q to an infinite cosmological constant.

The dual transformation connecting these two geometries is the spacetime inversion x^u -> x^u / sigma^2 . Under such a transformation, the Poincare group P is transformed into the group Q, and the Minkowski space M becomes the cone-space N. The points at infinity of M are concentrated in the vertex of the cone-space N, and those on the light-cone of M becomes the infinity of N. It is interesting to notice that, despite presenting an infinite scalar curvature, the concepts of space isotropy and equivalence between inertial frames in the cone-space N are those of special relativity. The difference lies in the concept of uniformity as it is the special conformal transformations, and not ordinary translations, which act transitively on N. ...

... in the light of the recent supernovae results ... favoring possibly quite large values for the cosmological constant, the above results may acquire a further relevance to Cosmology ...".

Since the Cosmological Constant comes from the 10 Rotation, Boost,and Special Conformal generators of the ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2), the fractional part of our Universe ofthe Cosmological Constant should be about 10 / 15 = 67%.

Since Black Holes, including Dark Matter PrimordialBlack Holes, are curvature singularities in our 4-dimensionalphysical spacetime, and since Einstein-Hilbert curvature comes fromthe 4 Translations of the 15-dimensional ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2) through the MacDowell-Mansouri Mechanism(in which the generatorscorresponding to the 3 Rotations and 3 Boosts do not propagate),the fractional part of our Universe of Dark Matter PrimordialBlack Holes should be about 4 / 15 = 27%.

Since Ordinary Matter gets mass from the Higgs mechanism which isrelated to the 1 Scale Dilatation of the 15-dimensional ConformalGroup Spin(2,4) = SU(2,2), the fractional part of our universe ofOrdinary Matter should be about 1 / 15 = 6%.

Therefore, our Flat Expanding Universe should, according to thecosmology of the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model, have, roughly:

67% Cosmological Constant -

- related to GraviPhotons of SpecialConformal transformations and Akira/TetsuoEnergy.

27% Dark Matter -

- such as black holes, rangingin size from the stable Planckmass to Jupiter mass;possibly some gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds; and/oreffective contributions from MOND.

6% Ordinary Matter -

- According to a New Scientist (22 March 2003pp. 41-42) article by Govert Schilling: "... Only around(1%) ... is ... in objects we can see ... stars, galaxies,and gas clouds ... Up to another ... (1%) .. may be...[in]... objects too faint for our telescopes too pickup, such as burned-out stars, small planets, or stars that failedto ignite ... The ...[ other 4% ] ...[maybe]... strung outlike cobwebsthroughout the cosmos ...".


Some relevant observational results in cosmologyare discussed by Subir Sakar in hep-ph/0201140,where he says:

"... The most exciting observational developments have undoubtedly been in measurements of the deceleration parameter q = ( dH^(-1) / dt ) - 1, which equals 0.5 for the E-deS model where H ...[is proportional to]... t^(2/3), and -1 for a DeSitter (deS) model with OMEGA_m = 0, OMEGA_/\ = 1 which has H constant. ... for z > 1 the cosmological constant becomes unimportant relative to the increasing matter density ( ...[proportional to]... (1+z)^3) so the expansion should be seen to be slowing down at such epochs; the transition from acceleration to deceleration occurs at z = ( 2 OMEGA_/\ / OMEGA_m )^(1/3) -1. ...

...[reference 44 is]... A.G. Riess et al., Astrophys. J. 560 (2001) 49; see also M.S. Turner and A.G. Riess, [astro-ph/0106051]. ...".

According to M.S. Turner and A.G. Riess, in astro-ph/0106051:

"... the SN data favor recent acceleration (z < 0.5) and past deceleration (z > 0.5) ... Specializing to a flat Universe, as indicated by recent CMB anisotropy measurements which determine OMEGA_0 = 1 ± 0.04 ... and constant w_X, these expressions become

H(z)^2 = H_0^2 [ OMEGA_M (1+z)^3 + OMEGA_X (1+z)^3(1+w_X) ]

q(z) = (1/2) [ ( 1 + (OMEGA_X / OMEGA_M) (1+3w_X) (1+z)^3w_X ) /

/ ( 1 + (OMEGA_X / OMEGA_M) (1+z)^3w_X ) ) ]

From this it follows that the redshift of transition from deceleration to acceleration ( = z_(q=0) ) is

1 + z_(q=0) = [ (1+3w_X)( OMEGA_M - 1) / OMEGA_M ]^(-1/(3w_X) ] =

= [ 2 OMEGA_/\ / OMEGA_M ]^(1/3)

where the second equation is for vacuum energy (i.e., w_X = -1). ...".

Note that for the /\ Cosmological Constant - Cold Dark Matter -Ordinary Matter model that is favored by WMAPobservations and the above calculations, OMEGA_/\ / OMEGA_M = 2(approximately), so that 1 + z_(q=0) = [ 2 OMEGA_/\ / OMEGA_M]^(1/3) = 4^(1/3) = 1.587 so that the redshift at the inflectionpoint between decelerated and accelerated expansion is about z_(q=0)= 0.587.


As Dennnis Marks pointed out to me:

the ratio of their overall average densities must vary with time,or scale factor R of our Universe, as it expands so that the abovecalculated ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06 is valid only for a particulartime, or scale factor, of our Universe, and that is a time near ourpresent time at which WMAP measures that ratio tobe 0.73 : 0.23 : 0.04 (in my opinion very close tothe above caculated ratio). His remarks are substantiallyequivalent to a question that Michael S. Turner, in astro-ph/0202005,calls "... The Nancy Kerrigan Problem ... in the past dark energy wasunimportant and in the future it will be dominant! We just happen tolive at the time when dark matter and dark energy have comparabledensities. In the words of Olympic skater Nancy Kerrigan, "Why me?Why now?". In other words:

WHEN is the abovecalculated ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06 ?

Since WMAP observes Ordinary Matter at 4% NOW,the time WHEN Ordinary Matter was 6% would be at redshift z such that1 / (1+z)^3 = 0.04 / 0.06 = 2/3 , or (1+z)^3 = 1.5 , or 1+z = 1.145 ,or z = 0.145. To translate redshift into time, in billions of yearsbefore present, or Gy BP, use this chart

from file SNAPoverview.pdf. to see that thetime WHEN Ordinary Matter was 6% would have been a bit over 2 billionyears ago, or 2 Gy BP.

What about Dark Energy /\ and ColdDark Matter during the past 2 Gy ?

( Note that the equation of state for MONDmight be similar to that for gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds, so, in thesecalculations, MOND dark mattermight be taken to include gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds. )

If Cold Dark Matter = PrimordialBlack Holes (PBH):

The above calculation of 2 Gy BP for the ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06is based only on the decline in the Ordinary Matter component withexpansion of Space, so it is only a rough estimate, in that itignores such things as decay of Ordinary Matter protons by GUT(10^31 year lifetime) or by Black Holeprocesses (10^64 year lifetime), which would be less importantduring the relevant time periods near NOW than in theBlack Hole and Dark Eras of the distant future.

Jack Sarfatti said (in the context of his physics/cosmology model): "... "... I am also saying that lepto-quarks [leptons and quarks] have dark matter cores on small scale. It's /\zpf < 0 that keeps electron stable. Think, naively for the nonce, of electron as a shell of electric charge with an inner /\zpf < 0 core. It looks like a "point" from huge effective curvature of /\zpf. ...".

That idea is not only interestingly similar to the idea of /\zpf < 0 haloes helping to hold galaxies together, but also seems very much like the Compton Radius Vortex model of leptons and quarks as Kerr-Newman black holes with no cosmic censorship of their naked singularities.

Also, perhaps the concept of Primordial Black Holes as Cold Dark Matter might be a particle manifestation of the part of /\zpf < 0 (or, perhaps equivalently, MOND Cold Dark Matter) that is not found in the center of /\ = 0 Ordinary Matter leptons and quarks. If that viewpoint is correct, in view of the WMAP ratio of 73% - 23% - 4% of /\ > 0 , /\ < 0, /\ = 0, there should be a lot more mass in /\ < 0 Primordial Black Holes than in /\ = 0 leptons and quarks.

Further, Cold Dark Matter cores of leptons and quarks seems consistent with an association of Ordinary Matter with production of MOND Cold Dark Matter in early times of our Universe, and it may be that PBH Cold Dark Matter and MOND Cold Dark Matter may be very closely related.

As to how the Dark Energy /\ and Cold Dark Matter terms haveevolved during the past 2 Gy, a rough estimate analysis would be,if Cold Dark matter = PBH:

The Ordinary Matter excess 0.06 - 0.04 = 0.02 plus the first-orderCDM excess 0.27 - 0.18 = 0.09 should be summed to get a totalfirst-order excess of 0.11, which in turn should be distributed tothe /\ and CDM factors in their natural ratio 67 : 27, producing, forNOW after 2 Gy of expansion:

for a total calculated ratio for NOW of 0.75 : 0.21 :0.04

so that the present ratio of 0.73 : 0.23 : 0.04 observed byWMAP seems to me to be consistentwith the cosmologyof the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel if Cold Dark Matter = PBH.

If Cold Dark Matter = MOND:

( Note that the equation of state for MONDmight be similar to that for gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds, so, in thesecalculations, MOND dark mattermight be taken to include gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds. )

The above calculation of 2 Gy BP for the ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06is based only on the decline in the Ordinary Matter component withexpansion of Space, so it is only a rough estimate, in that itignores such things as decay of Ordinary Matter protons by GUT(10^31 year lifetime) or by Black Holeprocesses (10^64 year lifetime), which would be less importantduring the relevant time periods near NOW than in theBlack Hole and Dark Eras of the distant future.

At first glance it might appear that if MOND obeys an equation of state with w = -1 similar to /\, as opposed to w = 0 similar to Ordinary matter, then MOND could not be the CDM of our Universe because, as Max Tegmark says: "... rho is proportional to (1+z)^3 for baryons and cold dark matter ...", while rho is constant if w = -1. However, Jack Sarfatti has suggested (in the context of his physics/cosmology model) that "... the galactic halos are huge spheres of exotic vacuum ...[ /\ < 0 Cold Dark Matter]... keeping the galaxies stable ...".

If Cold Dark Matter is concentrated around galaxies, then maybe Cosmological Constant /\ > 0 Dark Energy energy is concentrated in the (now much larger) volume of space that is mostly empty vacuum and maybe the reason for them to be located in different parts of our universe is that:

As to how that would affect the evolution of MOND Cold Dark Matter:

  • in the distant past, when Ordinary Matter was far more abundant than Cosmological Constant /\ > 0 Dark Energy, the MOND Cold Dark Matter may have been mostly generated by, and therefore proportional by 27 / 6 to, the gravitational field of Ordinary Matter. Therefore, at early times, MOND Cold Dark Matter would have its effective equation of state derived from that of ordinary matter, evolving consistently with the early universe asymptote (1+z)^3 shown on the Tegmark figure; while
  • in the near present and the future, Cosmological Constant /\ > 0 Dark Energy dominates Ordinary Matter, and the rate of creation of MOND Cold Dark Matter will be proportional by 27 / 67 to Cosmological Constant /\ > 0 Dark Energy, although the MOND Cold Dark Matter will tend to fall into, and be concentrated near, Ordinary Matter such as is found in the galaxies of our universe.

In his physics/cosmology model, Jack Sarfatti describes Dark Matter as a gravitationally attractive exotic form of Dark Energy equivalent to a Cosmological Constant taking values /\ < 0, while he describes Ordinary Matter as corresponding to non-exotic /\ = 0 with equilibrium vaccuum fluctuations producing Born Rule quantum phenomena, and Dark Energy as corresponding to an anti-gravitating conventional Cosmological Constant with /\ > 0.

It may be that Jack Sarfatti's /\ < 0 Dark Matter may be substantially equivalent to my MOND Cold Dark Matter, and

it may also be that MOND Cold Dark Matter and PBH Cold Dark Matter may be very closely related.

As to how the Dark Energy /\ and Cold Dark Matter terms haveevolved during the past 2 Gy and will evolve during the future, timesfor which /\ dominates Ordinary Matter, a rough estimate analysiswould be, if Cold Dark Matter = MOND:

The Ordinary Matter excess 0.06 - 0.04 = 0.02 should bedistributed to the /\ and CDM factors in their natural ratio 67 : 27,producing, for NOW after 2 Gy of expansion:

for a total calculated ratio for NOW of 0.68 : 0.28 :0.04

so that the present ratio of 0.73 : 0.23 : 0.04 observed byWMAP seems to me to be roughlyconsistent with the cosmologyof the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel if Cold Dark Matter = MOND, although the correspondenceis not quite as close as for the case that ColdDark Matter = PBH.

If Cold Dark Matter = PBH+ MOND:

( Note that the equation of state for MONDmight be similar to that for gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds, so, in thesecalculations, MOND dark mattermight be taken to include gravitationalinteractions from other Worlds of the Many-Worlds. )

The above calculation of 2 Gy BP for the ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06is based only on the decline in the Ordinary Matter component withexpansion of Space, so it is only a rough estimate, in that itignores such things as decay of Ordinary Matter protons by GUT(10^31 year lifetime) or by Black Holeprocesses (10^64 year lifetime), which would be less importantduring the relevant time periods near NOW than in theBlack Hole and Dark Eras of the distant future. As to how theDark Energy /\ and Cold Dark Matter terms have evolved during thepast 2 Gy, and will evolve during the future, times for which /\dominates Ordinary Matter, a rough estimate analysis would be, ifCold Dark Matter = (1/2) PBH +(1/2) MOND:

The Ordinary Matter excess 0.06 - 0.04 = 0.02 plus the first-orderCDM excess 0.13 = 0.09 = 0.04 should be summed to get a totalfirst-order excess of 0.06, which in turn should be distributed tothe /\ and CDM factors in their natural ratio 67 : 27, producing, forNOW after 2 Gy of expansion:

for a total calculated ratio for NOW of 0.71 : 0.25 :0.04

so that the present ratio of 0.73 : 0.23 : 0.04 observed byWMAP seems to me to be quiteconsistent with the cosmologyof the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel if Cold Dark Matter = PBH + MOND.


What are the Special Times in the History of our Universe?

In my opinion, there are four Special Times in the historyof our Universe:

After the Last Intersection at the end of the Early Part of theAccelerating Expansion of our Universe, expansion of our Universecontinues to accelerate with the Late Part of its AcceleratingExpansion until New Universes arecreated by Quantum FluctuationBlack Holes. New Universe creation canhappen many times at many Times (almost all of which are late).

Those four Special Times define four Special Epochs:

NOW happens to be about 2 billion years into the LateAccelerating Expansion Epoch.

The Copernican insight that Earth, the home ofHumanity and its precursor Life, is Not Special in our SolarSystem (and also its place among the stars of our Milky Way Galaxy)led us to understand the true structure of our Solar System and ourMilky Way Galaxy.

Our present insight that the Time of Life on Earth, from theProterozoic begining of Eukaryotic Life to Present-Day Humanity,covers the 2 billion years beginning with a SpecialTime in the Time-Historyof our Universe leads us to a better understanding of theUnification of Gravity / ParticlePhysics / Mathematics / Information/ Consciousness, and perhaps to a betterunderstanding our our ultimate Fate.


the above calculated ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06 of about 2billion years ago corresponds to the WMAPmeasured ratio 0.73 : 0.23 : 0.04 for the time NOW


the present ratio of 0.73 : 0.23 : 0.04 observed byWMAP seems to me to be quiteconsistent with the cosmologyof the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physicsmodel.


It is interesting to compare the Special Time ofthe calculated ratio 0.67 : 0.27 : 0.06 with the D4-E5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model calculationsof particle masses and force strengthconstants, because

For example, calculation of the QCD color forcestrength gives the number 0.6286, but that is only valid at theenergy level of /\qcd = 245 MeV. To get the QCD force strength thatyou see around the W mass of about 91 GeV, you have torun the QCD forcestrength by renormalization equations,which, on a simple level, give a QCD force strength of about 0.106 at91 GeV, which in my opinion maybe a reasonably physically realisticresult.


To the extent that its Spacetime expands more rapidly than astandard Friedman universe, the InflationaryEra of the Universe has an effective Cosmological Constant L(t)that causes particle creation (qualitatively somewhat similarly tothe C-field of Hoyle's Steady-State cosmology).

During the life of our universe, another Inflationary Universe might form from a Quantum Fluctuation.  


What is the Multipolestructure of the CMBR?

The Dipole is the dominant part of the CosmicMicrowave Background Radiation:

According to anMIT web page:

"... [This] map ...

... includes the dipole (due to the motion of the Earth,Solar System, and Galaxy through the universe) and Galaxy. ...

...[From this]... map ...

... the dipole has been subtracted ...

...[From this]... map ...

... both the dipole and the Galaxy have been subtracted ... Mostof what is left is receiver noise, but a careful statistacal analysisis able to ... extract the cosmic signal on large angular scales...". According to an8 March 1997 Astronomy Picture of the Day web page, "... The mapindicates that the Local Group moves at about 600 kilometers persecond relative to this primordial radiation. ...". According toanNCSA web page, "... our entire Local Group [of galaxies,including M31 in Andromeda]is hurtling toward the center of the Virgo cluster at one millionmiles per hour. The Virgo cluster liessome 50 million light years from Earth. ... the Virgo Cluster, alongwith several other large clusters, are in turn speeding towards agigantic unseen mass named The GreatAttractor. ...".

According to a3 March 2003 BBC article by David Whitehouse, "... MaxTegmark, of the University of Pennsylvania, US, ... and colleaguespresent the CMB as a sphere [GalacticNorthern hemisphere shown in the image below]: ...

... "The entire observable Universe is inside this sphere, with usat the centre of it." ... "Space continues outside the sphere butthis opaque glowing wall of hydrogen plasma hides it from our view.If we could only see another 380,000 light-years we would be able tosee the beginning of the Universe," ...".

Tegmark, de Oliveira-Costa, and Hamiltonsay, in astro-ph/0302496,"... We perform an independent foreground analysis of the WMAPmaps to produce a cleaned CMB map ... ... We also produce a Wienerfiltered CMB map, representing our best guess as to what the CMBsky actually looks like ... we plot the lowest three multipolesof our cleaned map ... all on the same temperature scale ...

... First of all, although a generic quadrupole has six lobes(three orthogonal pairs of lobes, each of which is either both hot orboth cold), we see that the actual CMB quadrupole has only fournonnegligible lobes, and that the two cold lobes, apparentlycoincidentally, fall near the Galactic plane. Applying a Galaxy cuttherefore removes a substantial fraction of the quadrupole power. Inother words, there is a preferred axis in space along which thequadrupole has almost no power. This axis is roughly the lineconnecting us with (l, b) = (-80, 60) in Virgo. ...

[ According to a WMAP paper astro-ph/0302207: "... The angular power spectrum is shown for the WMAP data ...

... The WMAP power spectrum agrees closely with COBE at the largest angular scales, and with CBI and ACBAR at the finer angular scales. ... /\CDM models predict enhanced large angle power due to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. The WMAP and COBE data, on the other hand, have the opposite trend. ... The quadrupole is the l = 2 term of the spectrum delta T_l^2 ... The quadrupole value is low compared with values predicted by /\CDM models that fit the rest of the power spectrum. /\CDM models, in particular, tend to predict relatively high quadrupole values due to the enhanced, /\-driven, integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. ...". ] [ According to Principles of Physical Cosmology, by P. J. E. Peebles (Princeton 1993, at pp. 500-501): "... Sachs and Wolfe ... showed [in 1967] that in the standard cosmological model the large-scale fluctuations in the cosmic background radiation temperature as a function of position across the sky provide a sensitive measure of large-scale fluctuations in the mass distribution. ... the CBR temperature scales inversely with the redshift along the line of sight to last scattering, and the redshift is proportional to the expansion factor along the line of sight. If large-scale departures from homogeneity caused the expansion of the universe across the Hubble length to differ by the fractional amount d_h, measured in orthogonal directions, it would produce a quadrupole CBR anomaly dT / T = d_h. ... the constraint on d_h from the Sachs-Wolfe relation decreases with decreasing scale ...". ]

[ According to a 5 April 2003 article by Michael Brooks in the New Scientist (pages 22-23): "... David Spergel ... says ... When the ... Square of temperature difference (microkelvins^2) [in the above figure] ... are compared across the largest distance scales, the WMAP data falls below the theoretical prediction ... The mismatch ... is disturbing ... because it suggests there could be something fundamentally different about the Universe on the largest size scales. ...". ]

[ Perhaps those low WMAP values are due to the preferred axis along the line connecting us with (l,b) = (-80,60) in Virgo, or to large-scale regions outside Gravitationally Bound Domains of Unispace. ]

... Second, although the overall octopole power is large, notsuppressed like the quadrupole, it too displays the unusual propertyof a preferred axis along which poweris suppressed. Moreover, this[octopole] axis is seen to be approximately aligned withthat for the quadrupole. The reason that our measured octopole... is larger than that reported by the WMAP team is therefore, onceagain, that much of the power falls within the Galaxy cut. Incontrast, the hexadecapole is seen to exhibit the more genericbehavior we expect of an isotropic random field, with no obviouspreferred axis. ...

... We thank the the WMAP team for producing such a superbdata set and for promptlymaking it public ...".


Note that dipole (linesegment) configurations


are naturally related to spatial axes in 3-dimensional space, asare quadrupole (square) and octopole (cube) configurations

*---*          *---* |   |          |\  |\*---*          *-*-*-*                \| \ |                 *---*

However, since higher multipoles, from hexadecapole on up, arerelated to 4-dimensional and higher dimensional hypercubes,they do not have such a direct relationship to spatial axes in3-dimensional space. Galactic coordinates for the dipole

are shown in astro-ph/0110650by Piat, Lagache, Bernard, Giard, and Puget. It seems to me that thedipole, the quadrupole and the octopole are all aligned with respectto the same axis, which corresponds to the Great Attractor in Virgo.Therefore, I think that:


In 1995, Di Nella and Paturel at Lyon observed that "The distribution of galaxies up to a distance of 200 Mpc (650 million light-years) is flat and shows a structure like a shell roughly centered on the Local Supercluster (Virgo cluster). This result clearly confirms the existence of the hypergalactic large scale structure noted in 1988." Woudt, Fairall, and Kraan-Korteweg said in 1996  that the core of the Great Attractor may be located behind the Southern Milky Way, dominated by the cluster ACO 3627 at redshift distance 4882 km/sec.   The Coma cluster of the northern Great Wall, at redshift distance 6960 km/sec, is another large structure.  In 1997 Charles Steidel of Caltech (Science 276 (4 April 1997) 36) observed walls of galaxies hundreds of millions of light years long at redshifts between 2.8 and 3.5, only 2 billion years after the Big Bang. Subir Sakar has done a computer analysis of data from the Anglo-Australian Automatic Plate Measuring suvey and found Galactic Clusters on the scale of 300 million light years (New Scientist article by Marcus Chown, 25 April 1998, page 7).  




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