Frank Dodd (Tony) Smith, Jr. - 2010
Earth temperatures over its 4.6 billion year life are shown in thechart above from "Dynamical Paleoclimatology: Generalized Theory ofGlobal Climate Change" by Barry Saltzman (Academic Press, New York,2002, fig. 1-3) via John Baez's Temperature web page dated 1 October2006.
From the two charts shown below from "Global Climate ChangeStudent Guide" by Joe Buchdahl (aric, Manchester MetropolitanUniversity 1999) it appears that sea levels for the past 150 millionyears
show that most of that period, up until about 20 million yearsago, Earth was warm and sea levels were high - as shown by this mapfrom a University of Arizona Chicxulub crater web page for 65 millionyears ago when asteroid impact killed the dinosaurs and cooled theEarth somewhat
and that the cooling of Earth and lowering of sea levels furtherdown to their present low level coincided with the evolutionaryemergence of Dolphins and other large-brained Cetaceans about 20million years ago,
and that sea levels for the past 150,000 years, the time ofevolutionary emergence of the basic current human form ofmitochondrial mtDNA,
show that an Ice Age of about 150,000 years ago ended around130,000 years ago with sea levels rising to nearly presentlevels,
then declining a bit with a significant dip marking the TobaVolcano eruption in Sumatra about 71,000 to 74,000 years ago, whichmay have killed off all but a few thousand of the humans then onEarth,
then, after a brief post-Toba warming of about 60,000 to 50,000years ago, a significant cooling around 50,000 years ago coincidedwith the evolutionary emergence of the basic current human form ofY-chromosome DNA,
then, around 35,000 years ago, at the beginning of Manetho'srule of Gods on Earth and the evolutionary emergence of theBoskops, an Ice Age almost as deep as that of 150,000 yearsago,
then, around 20,000 years ago, at the beginning of Manetho'srule of DemiGods and Spirits of the Dead, an end to the coolingtrend and a relatively constant low sea level as shown in Eurasia /North Africa in this image from "The Times Atlas of World History"(Times Books (4th ed) 1993) in which red shows the extended land areadue to low sea levels about 20,000 years ago, and green and yellowshow areas favorable for human habitation in wet and dry periods,respectively (the two turqouise squares show the locations of theSphinx-Giza complex at the mouth of the Nile River and of GoraBelukha in Central Asia, which may be known in China as Kunlun Shan,home of Xi Wang Mu, the Queen of the West, and in India as Su Meru,home of Indra)
then, around 11,600 years ago, at the beginning of Manetho'srule of Man and the evolutionary disappearance of the Boskops, awarming trend leading to the present warm interval sea levels.
The image below from "The Toba Volcano" by George Weber atwww.andaman.org/BOOK/originals/Weber-Toba/ch3_explosion/textr3.htm )describes the Toba eruption:
Perhaps 1,000 million tons of aerosols were put into thestratosphere. According to aDiscover article: "... people all over the world are amazinglysimilar. Some anthropologists believe that this genetic homogeneityis the result of a "population bottleneck" -- that at some time inthe past our ancestors went through an event that greatly reduced ournumbers and thus our genetic variation. Based on estimates ofmutation rates, Penn State geneticist Henry Harpending says thebottleneck happened sometime after ... 100,000 years ago and before apopulation increase ... around 50,000 years ago. Now archeologistStan Ambrose of the University of Illinois has linked Harpending'stheory with geologic evidence to explain what caused the bottleneck... Mount Toba in Sumatra ... the largest volcanic eruption in morethan 400 million years. Toba buried most of India under ash and musthave darkened skies over a third of the hemisphere for weeks. ... asix-year global volcanic winter ensued, caused by light-reflectingsulfur particles lingering in the atmosphere. Average summertemperatures dropped by 21 degrees at high latitudes, and 75 percentof the Northern Hemisphere's plants may have died. ... Athousand-year ice age began ... The effect on humans, who hadbeen enjoying a relatively warm period, must have been devastating.... Perhaps only a few thousand people ... survived. ...".
Nicholas Wade, in a 7 December 1999 article in TheNew York Times, says: "... Dr. Richard G. Klein of StanfordUniversity and others believe that some major genetically basedneurological change, like the development of language, occurredabout 50,000 years ago. ... A ... genetic survey... drawing on DNAdata from 50 ethnic groups around the world, concludes that theancestral population from which the first emigrants came may havenumbered as few as 2,000 people. ... Another new genetic study, byDr. Marcus Feldman of Stanford University and others ... looked atsegments of the Y chromosome ... they concluded that the most recentcommon ancestor of all these Y's was carried by a man who lived only40,000 years or so ago. ... The 40,000-year date, whichhas a large range of uncertainty, is much more recent thanothers, in part because the earlier estimates were forced to assume,quite unrealistically, that the size of the human population remainedconstant throughout prehistory. Dr. Feldman assumed an exponentiallyexpanding population, which yields a more recent date oforigin....".
the Geminga shock wave hit Earth;
the Late Wisconsin Glaciation of Earth began,;and
According to the Human History Chronology of Manetho * (Egyptian historian ca. 343 BC)
about 36,525 years ago Gods on Earth began to rule Earth, ruling until
about 22,625 years ago when Demigods and Spirits of the Dead (followers of Horus) succeeded them, ruling until
about 11,600 years ago Mortal Humans began to rule Earth, ruling up to the present day.
It is interesting that time that the Earth was ruled by Gods,Demigods and Spirits of the Dead, about 36,525 - 11,600 = 24,925years, is roughly the time of one Earth precession period, which isalso roughly the travel time of a light beam from the center of ourGalaxy to our Sun.
According to the book Big Brain by Gary Lynch and RichardGranger (Macmillan 2008):
(image from www.dwaf.gov.za web site) ]
This image is from a 29 April 2008 ebcak.com postby adminebcak:
According to a 28 December 2009 Discover Magazine article by Gary Lynch and Richard Granger:
"... In the autumn of 1913, two farmers ... uncovered ... hominid skull fragments ... while digging a drainage ditch ...[in]... Boskop, a small town about 200 miles inland from the east coast of South Africa. ... Boskop's brain size is about 30 percent larger than our own - that is, a 1,750-cc brain to our average of 1,350 cc. And that leads to an increase in the prefrontal cortex of a staggering 53 percent. If these principled relations among brain parts hold true, then Boskops would have had not only an impressively large brain but an inconceivably large prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is closely linked to our highest cognitive functions ... possibly the jump from ourselves to Boskops generated new, qualitatively different mental capacities. ...
These [Boskop] people had small, childlike faces. ... A typical current European adult, for instance, has a face that takes up roughly one-third of his overall cranium size. Boskop has a face that takes up only about one-fifth of his cranium size, closer to the proportions of a child. Examination of individual bones confirmed that the nose, cheeks, and jaw were all childlike. ...
Just about 100 miles from the original Boskop discovery site, further excavations were once carried out by Frederick FitzSimons. ... The site had been at one time a communal living center, perhaps tens of thousands of years ago. There were many collected rocks, leftover bones, and some casually interred skeletons of normal-looking humans. But to one side of the site, in a clearing, was a single, carefully constructed tomb, built for a single occupant - perhaps the tomb of a leader or of a revered wise man. His remains had been positioned to face the rising sun. In repose, he appeared unremarkable in every regard...except for a giant skull. ...".
The Boskop skull reminds me of Teddy Bears - maybe that is whysome people like Teddy Bears so much.
According to the National Geographic Genographic project: "...about 150,000 to 170,000 years ago, a woman was born from whom we areall descended. ... "Mitochondrial Eve" ... was the only female whohad descendants that are now living in the present day. ...... mtDNA...
mtDNA haplogroup L0 first appeared around 100,000 years ago ...Many L0 individuals in America share mitochondrial lineages withindividuals from Mozambique. ... South America ... has a markedlyhigher proportion of L0 individuals ...
Y-chromosome ... haplogroup... M2 ...[originated]... .inAfrica around 20,000 to 30,000 years ago ... then traveled south tosub-Saharan Africa ...
Maternally inherited mtDNA, governing the mitochondrialsub-cell of human cells, evolved to its basic current human formduring the Ice Age of about 150,000 years ago, and the L0humans emerged somewhat after that Ice Age ended around 130,000 yearsago.
Paternally inherited Y-choromosome DNA, which along withX-chromosomal and non-sex-specific autosomal DNA governs thefundamental structural code of human cells, evolved to its basiccurrent human form somewhat after the population bottleneck of theToba Volcanic Eruption about 71,000 to 74,000 years ago.
Perhaps the Boskop were who Richard Poe had in mind when in hisbook "Black Spark, White Fire" (Prima 1997) he quoted Diodorus ofSicily, author of Bibliotheca Historica, lived in the time of JuliusCaesar and Augustus (Encyclopaedia Britannica). as saying:
"Now the Ethiopians ... were the first of all men. ... the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris having been the leader of the colony ... Osiris ... gathered together a great army, with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earth and teaching the race of men how to cultivate ... for he supposed that if he made men give up their savagery and adopt a gentle manner of life he would receive immortal honors. ...".
Lynch and Granger, in their 28 December 2009 Discover Magazinearticle, say: "... We internally activate many thoughts at once, butwe can retrieve only one at a time. Could the Boskop brain haveachieved the ability to retrieve one memory while effortlesslyprocessing others in the background, a split-screen effect enablingfar more power of attention? ...", which might be related to thepossible ability of Dolphins, with their two sub-brains actingtogether as a quantum computer interference device (similar to adevice proposed by Andrew Gray) to give a perspective Dolphin visionof the Worlds of the Quantum Many-Worlds.
Another (possibly related) type of enhanced mental capacity mightoccur if the Boskop produced increased amounts of endogenous DMT.
According to "Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the traceamine receptors: a possible role in sensory perception." by J. V.Wallach (Med Hypotheses. 2009 Jan;72(1):91-4. Epub 2008 Sep 20): "...The recent discovery of the trace amine associated receptors and theactivity of DMT and other hallucinogenic compounds at these receptorsites leads to the hypothesis that the endogenous hallucinogens actas neurotransmitters of a subclass of these trace amine receptors ...the trace amine receptors along with their endogenous hallucinogenligands may serve an endogenous role in mediating sensory perceptionin the mammalian central nervous system. Thus the theory proposedstates that these compounds act as true endogenous hallucinogenictransmitters acting in regions of the central nervous system involvedin sensory perception. ...".
Endogenous DMT need not be produced in the brain itself (and socould be produced in such organs as the pineal glant), as noted byMichael S. Jacob, David E. Prest in their article "Endogenouspsychoactive tryptamines reconsidered: an anxiolytic role fordimethyltryptamine" (Medical Hypotheses (2004)) where they said: "...DMT production could occur outside the brain and still have activityin the brain because DMT can readily cross the blood brain barrier.This would be different from most neurotransmitters, which do nothave significant blood&endash;brain-barrier permeability and thusmust be produced within the brain. ...".
Such endogenous DMT enhanced perception might have given theBoskops mental/spiritual abilities such as those described by TerenceMcKenna in his May 1993 OMNI magazine interview: "... In his 1992book Food of the Gods, McKenna delineates a radical history of drugsand human evolution ... extolling the virtues of psilocybin mushroomsand DMT (dimethyltryptamine) ... DMT ... Dimethyltryptamine is ... aserotonin agonist; that is, it mimics the neurotransmitter serotonin...
MCKENNA: ... From 75,000 [ the time of the Toba Volcanic eruption ] to about 15,000 years ago [ near the end of the last Ice Age ], there was a kind of human paradise on Earth. ... Nobody went more than three or four weeks before they were redissolved into pure feeling and boundary dissolution. ...
DMT drops you into a place where the stress is on a transcending language. ... You burst into a space. ... The world is not a single, one-dimensional, forward-moving, causal, connected thing, but some kind of interdimensional nexus. ... entities are there ... They are teaching something. Theirs is a higher dimensional language that condenses as a visible syntax. ... they ... offer you something ... so beautiful, so intricately wrought, so something else that cannot be said in English, that just gazing on this thing, you realize such an object is impossible. ... The object generates other objects, and it's all happening in a scene of wild merriment and confusion. ... [compare El Aleph, written in 1945 by Jorge Luis Borges]
Something in an unseen dimension is acting as an attractor for our forward movement in understanding. ... It's a point in the future that affects us in the present. ... Our model that everything is pushed by the past into the future, by the necessity of causality, is wrong. There are actual attractors ahead of us in time -- like the gravitational field of a planet. Once you fall under an attractor's influence, your trajectory is diverted. ... I think [that the attractor has a kind of intelligence]...".
Around11,600 years ago, about when the Vela X supernova was seenin Earth, a very sudden (50 years or so) warming event ended the IceAge and marked the start of the HOLOCENE AGE of warm climate andglacial retreat, and rising sea levels flooded much productive landcreating shortages of food and consequently competition for availablefood, and what Terence McKenna called "tooth-and-claw dominance". AsGary Lynch and Richard Granger said in their 28 December 2009Discover Magazine article: "... human history has often been ahistory of savagery. ... Perhaps the preternaturally civilizedBoskops had no chance against our barbarous ancestors ...".
Not only might the "preternaturally civilized" Boskops have beenat a physical disadvantage in fighting smaller-brain humans, but thesocial organizations useful in forming successful armies to seizeresources might tend to create evolutionary pressure in favor ofhumans with less creativity and more blind-faith obedience toauthority. As examples from the dominant power of the late 20thcentury, the USA Army trained soldiers that "there is the right way,the wrong way, and the Army way, and you will do it the Army way"because "you can't fight the Green Machine", and the USA Navy woulddisqualify sailors from working on nuclear power plants of ships andsubmarines if their test results showed too much creativity.
Further, as John Hawks said on his weblog on 30 March 2008, "...brains are [energetically] expensive ... brains take a longtime to mature ... brains require high protein and fat consumption...", all of which factors would work against the Boskop in an age ofscarcity after about 11,600 years ago,
so it is not surprising that John Hawks also noted that "... "...there has been a reduction in the average brain size in South Africaduring the last 10,000 years, and there have been parallel reductionsin Europe and China -- pretty much everywhere we have decent samplesof skeletons, it looks like brains have been shrinking ...".
As Terence McKenna in his May 1993 OMNI magazine interview: "...For 10,000 years ... we've pursued an agenda of beasts and demons ...If history goes off endlessly into the future, it will be aboutscarcity, preservation of privilege, forced control of populations,the ever-more-sophisticated use of ideology to enchain and deludepeople. ...".
All this is consistent with the Vedic view (seenersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/~ghi/vcchap.html) of what happened after about11,600 years ago, into the Bronze and Iron Ages and on through thepresent Industrial Age: "...prior to the beginning of Kali-yuga ...all living beings were on a higher average level than they are atpresent, and advanced beings such as demigods and great sagesregularly visited the earth. ... Once the Kali-yuga began, demigodsand higher beings greatly curtailed communications with people on theearth, and the general sensory level of human beings also declined.... due to the lack of feedback from higher sources and the naturalcheating propensity of human beings, the traditions ... became moreand more garbled ... the present stage of civilization was reached,in which old traditions are widely viewed as useless mythology, andpeople seek knowledge entirely through the use of their current,limited senses.".
Although all the Boskop may have been physically killed off around11,600 years ago, the remaining humans could have picked up some ofthe Boskop language and culture.
As to language, the language of Africans most closely related tothe Boskop may shed light on Boskop language. The languagecharacteristic of the South African Boskop region is the KhoiSangroup, as shown in this image from Wikipedia
According to "History of Click-Speaking Populations ofAfrica Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation"(Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195) by Tishkoffet al: "... South African Khoisan (SAK) ... languages...[include]... Khwe ...[and]... !Kung ...
According to http://countrystudies.us/south-africa/51.htm "... TheSan hunters and gatherers who occupied southern Africa for severalthousand years organized their society into small kinship-basedvillages, often including fewer than fifty people. The San economydeveloped out of the efficient use of the environment; their dietincluded a wide array of birds, animals, plants, and, among coastalpopulations, fish and shellfish. The San espoused generallyegalitarian values and recognized few leadership roles, except thatof religious specialist, or diviner. ... in the 1990s ... Allremaining Khoisan speakers ... are believed to be San, living in theKalahari Desert region in the Northern Cape and North-West Province.The ... South Africa ... government has no accurate count of theirnumbers, although it is generally believed that larger numbers of Sanlive in Botswana and Namibia. ...".
Elizabeth Culotta and Brooks Hanson, in the Introduction "FirstWords" to Science 27 February 2004, said: "... linguistic andgenetic clues suggest that ... the first language ... was rich withclicking and sucking noises now heard only in a few corners ofAfrica (see Pennisi's story on p. 1319) ...".
According to "Language ecology and photographic sound in theMcWorld" by John Wynne in Organised Sound11(1):45-54 (CambridgeUniversity Press 2006): "... Khoisan languages are highlycomplex: 'in grammatical and structural terms, [they] areworld class competitors in structural complexity' ... !Xoo...[has]... forty-eight distinct click variations [48 = root vectors of F4 ] and some eighty-threedifferent ways of starting a word with a click, this languagerepresents 'something like a maximum for human linguisticbehaviour' ... there are plenty of examples of languagesacquiring clicks from others, but none of languages losing them....
According to The Story of Human Language by John McWhorter (TheTeaching Company 2004): "... The Khoi-San languages ... are about 50... they do not form a tidy group as, for example, Indo-Europeandoes. There is barely a typical "Khoi-San" grammar - some bristlewith case endings like Latin, while others are more "naked" likeChinese, and there are not many words that appear in similar guisesin all or even many of them. This suggests that these languages arequite ancient, having diverged over a vast amount of time. ... it isvery hard to conceive of how clicks could emerge in a language. Itmay be that the clicks were present in the first language(s) and havedisappeared almost everywhere but where they originally existed. ...Thus, the click languages may be the descendants of the first one....".
Could Boskopian IFA Divination Structures represent what TerenceMcKenna described in his May 1993 OMNI magazine interview as "... ahigher dimensional language that condenses as a visible syntax. ...something ... so beautiful, so intricately wrought ... The objectgenerates other objects ...", reminiscent of El Aleph, written in1945 by Jorge Luis Borges ?
If so, then Boskopian IFA Divination Structures could act asTerence McKenna's Attractor
"... Something in an unseen dimension is acting as an attractor for our forward movement in understanding. ... It's a point in the future that affects us in the present. ... Our model that everything is pushed by the past into the future, by the necessity of causality, is wrong. There are actual attractors ahead of us in time -- like the gravitational field of a planet. Once you fall under an attractor's influence, your trajectory is diverted. ... I think [that the attractor has a kind of intelligence]..."
and its influence of the Future of Humanity could be as TerenceMcKenna described:
"... If history goes off endlessly [as it has been doing the past 11,600 years or so] into the future, it will be about scarcity, preservation of privilege, forced control of populations, the ever-more-sophisticated use of ideology to enchain and delude people.
We are at the breakpoint.
It's like when a woman comes to term. At a certain point, if the child is not severed from the mother and launched into its own separate existence, toxemia will set in and create a huge medical crisis.
The mushrooms said clearly, "When a species prepares to depart for the stars, the planet will be shaken to its core."
All evolution has pushed for this moment, and there is no going back. What lies ahead is a dimension of such freedom and transcendence, that once in place, the idea of returning to the womb will be preposterous.
We will live in the imagination.
We will quickly become unrecognizable to our former selves because we're now defined by our limitations: the laws of gravity; the need to eat, excrete, and make money.
We have the will to expand infinitely into pleasure, caring, attention, and connectedness. If nothing more -- and it's a lot more -- it's permission to hope. ...".
According to "Berossos and Manetho" by Gerald P. Verbrugghe andJohn M. Wickersham (Michigan 1996, 2001)
"... Only two men partially succeeded in preserving the old Mesopotamia and Egypt for the new Greek Mesopotamia and Egypt. Berossos wrote a history of Babylonia in Greek, and Manetho wrote a history of Egypt in Greek. Unfortunately, their works have not survived from antiquity ...[and]... neither Berossos nor Manetho insprired successors who would build on the history each had written ... we are totally dependent on what survives [in secondary sources] from Berossos and Manetho for an organized attempt to present the entire history of ancient Babylonia and ancient Egypt
Manetho ... was living and active ... when the successors of Alexander the Great had become kings in their own right and own name ... [Syncellus asserts]... that Manetho's work (specifically the History of Egyp) appeared at about the same time as or slightly after that of Berossos ...
Berossos was born during Alexander's reign over Babylon ... between 330 and 323 B.C. ... he published his History of Babylonia in Greek ... most likely around 290 B.C. for the Macedonian king Antiochos I ...".
Manetho's Rule on Earth of Gods, Demigods and Spirits ofthe Dead covered the period of about 24,925 years (roughly thetime of one Earth precession period and also roughly the travel timeof a light beam from the Center of our Galaxy to our Sun)
As for Berossos, in "Berossos and Manetho" Gerald P. Verbruggheand John M. Wickersham say "... Berossos reports, according toApollidoros, that there were ten kings friom Aloros, the first king,to Xisouthros, under whom, he says, the ... Great Flood took place... The times of this rule of these kings he reckoned as 120 saroi... the Babylonian saros ... consists of 3,600 years .... ".Therefore, the total period for the Berossos chronologyanalagous to Manetho's Gods, Demigod and Spirits of the Dead wasabout 432,000 years, giving for the Berossos chronology
Feuerstein, Kak, and Frawley, in their book In Search of theCradle of Civilization (Quest 1995), say "... The principal and,taken in its totality, the oldest of the four Vedic hymnbodies isthe Rig-Veda. ... The Sanskrit word ric, which for euphonicreasons is changed to rig, means literally "praise". ... The Sanskritword veda means literally "knowledge" or "wisdom". ... The Rig-Vedais the oldest book in the Sanskrit language ... More than that, if weare correct, it is the oldest book in the world ...".
Therefore, it seems likely to me that Babylonia of Berossosinherited its chronology from the older Vedic civilization of India,which itself had direct contact via the Indian Ocean (the map belowis adapted from "Past Worlds, The Times Atlas of Archaeology"(Crescent Books 1995))
with the oldest civilization on Earth - Africa, whose culture,including IFA Divination, was not preserved in writing.
It also seems likely that Babylonians such as Berossos may nothave inherited and used the oldest, most fundamental version of Vediccosmology, but instead have used a later, not so fundamental version,such as that described by Ronnie Gale Dreyer in her book "VedicAstrology" (Weiser 1997):
"... The Indian system of epochs (known as Yugas) ... is made up of four ... eras which, when added together, comprise Maha Yuga (literally "great age"). Consisting of 4,320,000 years, Maha Yuga is divided into ratios of 4:3:2:1 as follows:
- Krtia Yuga (Golden Age) 1,728,000 years = 4
- Treta Yuga (Silver Age) 1,296,000 years = 3
- Dvapara Yuga (Copper Age) 864,000 years = 2
- Kali Yuga (Earthen [Bronze, Iron, etc] Age) 432,000 years = 1 ...".
So, it appears to me that the 432,000 year Antediluvian Period ofBerossos was imported from Vedic India the Earthen Age Kali Yuga partof the Maha Yuga, leading to the question:
According to John Major Jenkins in his 2001-2002 paper "TheSolstice Gateways and the Polar-to-Solar Shift":
"... My analysis of the yuga timing question ... began with the first Vedic source of commentary on the yuga doctrine, the Laws of Manu. That ancient text implicates a 24,000-year period for the yugas, clearly a reference to the precession of the equinoxes.
The larger numbers generated in some yuga calculations are usually base-ten multiples of the key yuga numbers ... and derived either from an inappropriate excitement over generating "big numbers" or from an interest in speculating about very large cosmic cycles.
However, let's stick to the Laws of Manu. The Hindu swami, Sri Yukteswar, in his little book The Holy Science (originally written around 1895), explains the Vedic and Hindu ideas related to the yuga doctrine as found in the Laws of Manu. The 24,000-year period, following the devayana / pitriyana doctrine of ascending and descending phases of all temporal processes, is divided into two halves. One ascends ... and the other descends away from it. One extreme indicates a Golden Age, the other extreme indicates a very Dark Age. Each half is divided into four ages, with the following numerological scheme:
- Golden Age = 4800 years
- Silver Age = 3600 years
- Bronze Age = 2400 years
- Iron Age (Kali Yuga) = 1200 years
The total equals the half cycle of 12,000 years, one-half of a precession cycle. ...
One of the oldest writings in Vedic literature comes from a pseudo-historical god-man called Manu. René Guénon pointed out that Manu belongs to a family of related archetypal figures, which include Melchezidek, Metatron, St Michael, Gabriel, and Enoch. As an angelic inspiration for the rebirth of humanity at the dawn of a new era, or manvantara, Manu is the primal law-giver, and his laws were recorded in the extremely ancient Vedic text called the Laws of Manu ... there is a section that deals with the ancient Vedic doctrine of World Ages - the yugas. Manu indicates that a period of 24,000 years - clearly a reference to precession - consists of a series of four yugas or ages, each shorter and spiritually darker than the last. ...".
which is substantially consistent with Manetho's AntediluvianPeriod
if you consider that Manetho's transition from the Rule of Gods onEarth took place during the Descending Golden Age from about 23,600years ago to about 18,800 years ago, so that the Demigods and Spiritsof the Dead were ruling Earth at the time of Maximal Glaciation ofthe Last Ice Age as indicated in this map of Earth as of 18,000 yearsago from Steven Stanley's book "Earth and Life Through Time" (Freeman(2nd ed) 1989)
at which time sea levels were about 85 meters lower thannow.
Around 11,600 years ago, at the conclusion of the Rule ofthe Demigods and Spirits of the Dead, just before the present WarmInterval ended the Last Ice Age, the Rule of Man on Earthbegan. Roughly at the same time, about 11,400 years ago, asupernova exploded in the constellation Vela. The Distance to theVela Supernova Remnant was measured by Cha, Sembach, and Danks, whoreported in astro-ph/9902230 that "... the Vela SNR has ... a...distance ... of 250 +/-30 pc, with a conservative upper limit of390 +/- 100 pc. ...". They also state that people on earth saw theexplosion about 11,000 years ago as a star of magnitude -10, asbright as a 7-day old Moon. According to Timothy Ferris in hisbook "Coming of age in the Milky Way" (William Morrow & Co. 1988)the Sumerians, who were living on the plains of the Tigris-Euphrates,identified the supernova with their god Ea, who invented writing andagriculture. The Vela X supernova may have roughly coincided with theprimary breakup of a large parent comet of Comet Encke and the Tauridmeteors. Possibly associated with Vela X, Comet Encke, and theTaurids might be Comet Hale-Bopp, which recently hadperihelion in 1997, also had perihelia about 4,200 yearsago, about 7,800 years ago, and, coincident with Vela X, about11,400 years ago.
Around 7,800 years ago, according to Sailing to Paradise -the Discovery of the Americas by 7000 B.C. by Jim Bailey (Simon andSchuster 1994): "... the earliest pure copper was extracted ineconomic quantities ...[at]... Lake Superior ... Isle Royaleand the Keweenaw Peninsula ... around 6000 B.C. Much of it was inthe form of boulders of pure copper. To the Greeks these were thegolden apples of the Hesperides, the island in the remote west beyondthe Atlantic ... to the Welsh these would be the apples ofAvalon. ... Mining and the fashioning of copper tools and weaponswere carried on ... at Lake Superior ... from the sixth millenniumB.C. to 1000 B.C. ... This dating ... means that the use of copperbegan at about the same time in America as around the Black Sea andin the Middle East. ... Greek tradition suggests that in theCopper Age nations were relatively peaceful, differences beingsettled by agreement or by casting lots. ...".
Around 4,200 years ago:
Around 1997 AD:
Abundant cheap oil reached and began to pass its peakproduction, as shown by this chart adapted from ScientificAmerican (March 1998)
The USA/UK attempted to secure Caspian Oil through the NATOKosovo war of 1999, but after a successful war found that, as W.Clark said in a 2003 ratville times article "... Since the mid-late1990s the Caspian Sea region of Central Asia was thought to holdapproximately 200 billion barrels of untapped oil (... comparable toSaudi Arabia's reserve base) ... After three exploratory wells werebuilt and analyzed, it was reported that the Caspian region holdsonly approximately 10 to 20 billion barrels of oil (although itdoes have a lot of natural gas) ... The oil is also of poor quality,with high sulfur content. ...[so]... The Bushadministration quickly turned its attention to a known quantity,Iraq, with its proven reserves totaling 11% of the world's oilreserves. ...". Now, in 2010, the USA/UK are still bogged down in warin Iraq (and, for some reason that may be clear to President Obama,but not to me, also in Afghanistan). Meanwhile, the production ofcheap oil is now about a decade past its peak, which willinexorably lead to shortage and the necessity to replace oil withnuclear energy, with gas, methane, and coal as intermediatestop-gaps.
LTC (founded by Myron Scholes (MIT and Stanford) and RobertMerton (Harvard), who shared the 1997 Nobel Prize for Economics)collapsed, setting the tone for the following years ofbubble-building and and collapsing of the USA/UK Global FinancialSystem. According to a series of articles in The New York Times, "...[USA President] Bill Clinton ... and Robert E. Rubin,[former] head of Goldman Sachs & Company ... pushedharder to win opportunities for American banks, brokerages andinsurance companies ... for free movement of capital ... in financialmarkets around the globe. ... Washington's policies ... fosteredvulnerabilities that are an underlying cause of the economiccrisis that began in Thailand in July 1997 ...[and]...rippled through Asia and Russia ... China ... evaded the crisis,and what saved it from catastrophe may in part have been itsunwillingness to listen to Western economists. Urged to make itscurrency freely tradable with the dollar, it resisted. ...".According to a 22 April 2009 economictimes.indiatimes.com article bySwaminathan S. Anklesaria Alyar: "... the Obama administration isprolonging the recession by avoiding surgery to remove dead wood fromits financial sector. Some call this cowardice. Others, such asformer IMF chief economist Simon Johnson, writing in The Atlantic,say Wall Street has captured the White House. ... Johnson says the USnow resembles Russia, where business oligarchs and governmentofficials protect each others' financial interests, at the expense ofthe economy. ... This ... highlights the priority given by the Obamaadministration to save the titans of Wall Street rather than end therecession quickly. ... Technically, the financial sector iscomprehensively bust. It needs to recognise the losses, writing offtrillions. ... The market solution would be to force insolventbanks into bankruptcy, with shareholders and creditors taking a hugehit ... Many titans of Wall Street will disappear ... the Obamaadministration refuses to contemplate this obvious solution. ... WallStreet has captured the White House, so nothing will be done toimperil the politico-financial network that rules the US. RobertRubin and Hank Paulson, treasury secretaries of Clinton and Bush,were both from Goldman Sachs. Larry Summers, the current treasurysecretary, earned millions as a hedge fund consultant. In a marketeconomy, well-managed companies should be rewarded with profits,while mismanaged companies should go bust. This basic rule has beensuspended almost entirely for the titans of Wall Street. ...Accounting norms have been tweaked to permit zombie banks topretend they are alive and solvent....". According to a March2009 OCC Quarterly Report "... NOTIONAL AMOUNT OF DERIVATIVECONTRACTS ... MARCH 31, 2009, $ MILLIONS
RANK Holding Company ASSETS DERIVATIVES1 JPMORGAN CHASE $2,079,188 $81,108,3522 BANK OF AMERICA 2,323,415 77,874,7263 GOLDMAN SACHS 925,987 47,749,1244 MORGAN STANLEY 626,023 39,125,2555 CITIGROUP 1,822,578 31,715,734 ..."
Note that if the derivatives go bad (as they are almost certain todo, given the ongoing economic collapse), there is no way that anyof the Big Five Banks that control the USA government haveenough assets to cover, as their total assets are only about $7.8trillion against about $277.6 trillion Derivative Exposure.
Deng Xiaoping died, construction began on the Three GorgesDam on the Yangtze River, and China continued to march towardGlobal Economic Dominance by becoming Earth's primarymanufacturer, based initially on cheap labor. Although someregard China as a top-down dictatorship, the true situation is quitedifferent. According to a 23 April 2009 popsci.com article by MaraHvistendahl "..... the relationship between citizen and state isfluid in China ... The Chinese distinction between the private andpublic domains is very small. ...". The Chinese Government/PeopleSystem may be in accord with what Ron Eglash, Ron Eglash, in hisbook "African Fractals" (Rutgers 1999), describes as "Africantraditions of decentralized decision making", and so might be amechanism through which Boskopian IFA Divination Structures canact as Terence McKenna's Intelligent El Aleph Attractor to leadhumanity through its breakpoint, shaking the Earth to its core, to afuture dimension of freedom and transcendence.
Perhaps a Chinese Dawn of theFuture of Man might be symbolized by the 9 March 1997apparition of Comet Hale-Bopp at the beginning of a Solar Eclipse asseen from Kunlun Shan looking East to China, in a painting by ShigemiNumazawa (note the planet Saturn near the horizon to the left of theSun/Moon and the planets Mercuiry, Venus, and Jupiter (and Uranus andNeptune too faint to be shown) to the right of the Sun/Moon), andthat the Sun/Moon is at the boundary of Pisces and Aquarius, whileMars is almost antipodal in Virgo near Leo):