Jay Yablon who has a web page at http://home.nycap.rr.com/jry/FermionMass.htm is a patent lawyer (think of Einstein's patent clerk career) who has done a great piece of independent thinking that he probably would not have been able to do had he been an establishment postdoc instead of a patent lawyer who studied on his own. Here is my understanding of his recent work (as of 17 February 2005), using calculated values from my physics model rather than the somewhat different numerical values Jay Yablon uses:

## Vacuum, Force Strengths, and Particle Masses

Jay Yablon is (AFAIK) the first person to have seen some fundamental relatonships among:

• the vacuum expectation value v;
• force strengths; and
• masses of particles.

In my view, a physical interpretation of the relationships is:

• 1 - You start with the vacuum at a particular energy level that is related to the particle that you want to make out of the vacuum;
• 2 - You then apply the force strength that is relevant for that particle, bearing in mind Feynman's interpretation of force strength as the probability of emitting/absorbing a gauge boson carrying that force (the charge, sort of a square root of the force strength, being the amplitude for emission/absorption);
• 3 - The product to 1 and 2 then gives you the mass of the heaviest particle of that type (such as for example the tau lepton). It is sort of like the force strength pulls out of vacuum the stuff needed to make the heaviest particle based on that force. The masses of the lighter particles of that type (such as electron and muon) can then be seen by considering them to be made up of subsystems of the basic building block system of the heaviest (such as the tauon). (In my view, those building blocks are octonion basis elements.)

Here are some examples:

Tauon Lepton Fermion:

Masses of the other massive leptons can be calculated from combinatorial and other relationships among the massive leptons, because other massive leptons can can be considered as being made up of subsystems of the basic building block system of the tauon. ( In my view, those building blocks are octonion basis elements. )

Truth Quark Fermion:

Masses of the other quarks can be calculated from combinatorial and other relationships among the quarks, because other quarks can can be considered as being made up of subsystems of the basic building block system of the Truth Quark. ( In my view, those building blocks are octonion basis elements. )

W+/- Boson:

• The vacuum expectation value v = 252.5 GeV and
• the geometric part of the weak force strength = 0.2535
• give a mass for the W+/- Boson, 252.5 GeV x 0.2535 = 64 GeV, which is very much too low. However, since the W+/- is a boson, obeying Bose-Einstein statistics that favor collective behavior ( unlike fermions, which obey Fermi-Dirac statistics that favor individual behavior such as evidenced by the Pauli Exclustion Principle ), the W+/- calculation should include not only the first order force strength product, but should also take into account all orders N by mulitplying the vacuum expectation value by the sum of all orders (force strength)^N for N from 1 to infinity. Since the relevant force strength is less than 1, that sum is (force strength) / ( 1 - (force strength) ), so the correct formula for the W+/- Boson mass is 252.5 x 0.2535 / 0.7465 = 85.745 GeV ( compare my model calculated value of 80.326 GeV ).

It is interesting to note that if you use the energy level of the Particle Data Group value of the tauon mass and the Particle Data Group value at that energy level of the color force strength, 0.328, you get the following two results:

Maybe since the tauon is given in terms of the electromagnetic force strength and the vacuum, and since the W+/- Boson acts on both leptons and quarks, this version of the W+/- Boson mass comes from looking at the vacuum in terms of both electromagnetic ( leptonic ) and color ( quark ) charges .

Maybe since the tauon is given in terms of the electromagnetic force strength and the vacuum, and since the Truth Quark is the heaviest of all fermions and is a part of a 3-element T-quark - Higgs - Vacuum system involving the bosonic Higgs scalar and the Vacuum itself, this version of the Truth Quark mass comes from looking at the vacuum in terms of the the sum-of-all-orders of the forces involved. Since the electromagnetic force strength is of the order of 1/137, its sum-of-all-orders value 1/136 is not very different from its first-order value 1/137, and almost all the sum-of-all-orders effect is in the color force sector, for which the first-order value ( at tauon mass/energy level ) of 0.328 is substantially different from the sum-of-all-orders value of about 0.488.

Note that the above Vacuum - Force Strengths - Particle Mass calculations do not seem to be exact, so that they should probably be considered to be low-order results that are to be refined by correction terms, which correction terms I do not yet understand. However, in my opinion, the results stated are so close to reality that they clearly indicate that it is reasonable to think in physical terms, along with Feynman's statement in his book QED (Princeton, corrected edition 1988, at page 129),

"... e [ the electron charge, is ]... the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon ...",

that