Deriving the Standard Model plus Gravitation from Simple Operations on Finite Setsby Tony Smith Table of Contents: Chapter 1 - Introduction. Chapter 2 - From Sets to Clifford Algebras. Chapter 3 - Octonions and E8 lattices. Chapter 4 - E8 spacetime and particles. Chapter 5 - HyperDiamond Lattices. Chapter 6 - Spacetime and Internal Symmetry Space. Chapter 7 - Feynman Checkerboards. Chapter 8 - Charge = Amplitude to Emit Gauge Boson. Chapter 9 - Mass = Amplitude to Change Direction. Chapter 10 - Protons, Pions, and Physical Gravitons. Appendix A - Errata for Earlier Papers. References.

According to JohnC. Baez and S. Jay Olson in their paper at gr-qc/0201030:

"... Ng and van Dam have argued that quantum theory and general relativity give a lower bound delta L>L^(1/3) L_P ^(2/3) on the uncertainty of any distance, where L is the distance to be measured and L_P is the Planck length. Their idea is roughly that to minimize the position uncertainty of a freely falling measuring device one must increase its mass, but if its mass becomes too large it will collapse to form a black hole. ... Amelino-Camelia has gone even further, arguing that delta L>L^(1/2) L_P ^(1/2) ... Here we show that one can go below the Ng-van Dam bound [ and the Amelino-Camelia bound ] by attaching the measuring device to a massive elastic rod. ...[ while the Ng-van Dam ] result was obtained by multiplying two independent lower bounds on delta L, one from quantum mechanics and the other from general relativity, ours arises from an interplay between competing effects. On the one hand, we wish to make the rod as heavy as possible to minimize the quantum-mechanical spreading of its center of mass. To prevent it from becoming a black hole, we must also make it very long. On the other hand, as it becomes longer, the zero-point fluctuations of its ends increase, due to the relativistic limitations on its rigidity. We achieve the best result by making the rod just a bit longer than its own Schwarzschild radius.

... Relativistic limitations on the rod's rigidity, together with the constraint that its length exceeds its Schwarzschild radius, imply that zero-point fluctuations of the rod give an uncertainty delta L

>L_P . ...".

The Discrete HyperDiamondGeneralized Feynman Checkerboard andContinuous Manifolds are related byQuantum Superposition:

- Elements of a Discrete Clifford algebra correspond to Basis Elements of a Real Clifford algebra.
- General Elements of a Real Clifford algebra correspond to Superpositions of Basis Elements = Elements of the underlying Discrete Clifford algebra.
- Volumes of Spaces of Superpositions of some given Sets of Basis Elements correspond to Mass or Charge of Particles or Forces represented by those Basis Elements.
- Volumes of Spaces of Superpositions of other given Sets of Basis Elements correspond to Volume of Physical SpaceTime and Volume of Internal Symmetry Space represented by those Basis Elements.

The 4-dimensional spacetime of this HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboardphysics model is a HyperDiamond lattice that comes from 4 dimensions of the8-dimensional E8 lattice spacetime. If the basis ofthe E8 lattice is {1, i, j, k, E, I, J, K },then the basis of the 4-dimensional spacetime is theassociative part with basis {1, i, j, k }. Therefore, the 4-dimensional spacetime lattice iscalled the associative spacetime and denoted by 4HDa. The 1-time and 3-space dimensions of the 4HDa spacetimecan be represented by the 4 future lightcone links and the4 past lightcone links as in the pair of "Square Diagrams"of the 4 lines connecting the future endsof the 4 future lightcone linksandof the 4 lines connecting the past endsof the 4 past lightcone links:

The 8 links { T,X,Y,Z,-T,-X,-Y,-Z } correspondto the 8 root vectors of the Spin(5) de Sitter gravitationgauge group, which has an 8-element Weyl group S2^2 x S2. The symmetry group of the 4 links of the future lightcone is S4,the Weyl group of the 15-dimensional Conformal group SU(4) = Spin(6). 10 of the 15 dimensions make up the de Sitter Spin(5) subgroup, and the other 5 fix the "symmetry-breaking direction" and scale of theHiggs mechanism. For more on this, seeWWW URL http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/cnfGrHg.html The action of Gravity on Spinors is given by the Papapetrou Equations. The Internal Symmetry Space of this HyperDiamond Feynman Checkerboardphysics model is a HyperDiamond lattice that comes from 4 dimensionsof the 8-dimensional E8 lattice spacetime. If the basis ofthe E8 lattice is {1, i, j, k, E, I, J, K },then the basis of the 4-dimensional Internal Symmetry Space is thecoassociative part with basis {E, I, J, K }. Therefore, the 4-dimensional spacetime lattice iscalled the associative spacetime and denoted by 4HDca. Physically, the 4HDca Internal Symmetry Space should be thought ofas a space "inside" each vertex of the 4HDa HyperDiamond FeynmanCheckerboard spacetime, sort of like a Kaluza-Klein structure. The 4 dimensions of the 4HDca Internal Symmetry Space are: electric charge; red color charge; green color charge; and blue color charge. Each vertex of the 4HDca lattice has 8 nearest neighbors,connected by lightcone links. They have the algebraic structureof the 8-element quaternion group <2,2,2>. Each vertex of the 4HDca lattice has 24 next-to-nearest neighbors,connected by two lightcone links. They have the algebraic structureof the 24-element binary tetrahedral group <3,3,2> that isassociated with the 24-cell and the D4 lattice. As with the time as space dimensions of the 4HDa spacetime,the E-electric and RGB-color dimensions of the 4HDcaInternal Symmetry Space can be represented bythe 4 future lightcone links and the4 past lightcone links. However, in the 4HDca Internal Symmetry Space theE Electric Charge should be treated as independent ofthe RGB Color Charges. As a result the pair of "Square Diagrams"act more like "Triangle plus Point Diagrams".

The 2+6 links { E,-E;R,G,B,-R,-G,-B } correspond to: the 2 root vectors of the weak force SU(2),which has a 2-element Weyl group S2; and the 6 root vectors of the color force SU(3),which has a 6-element Weyl group S3.

In calculations, it is sometimes convenient to use the volumes of compact manifolds that represent spacetime, internal symmetry space, and fermion representation space. The compact manifold that represents 8-dim spacetime is RP1 x S7, the Shilov boundary of the bounded complex homogeneous domain that corresponds to Spin(10) / (Spin(8)xU(1)).

Note that S1/Z2 can be described as an orbifold.

The compact manifold that represents 4-dim spacetime is RP1 x S3, the Shilov boundary of the bounded complex homogeneous domain that corresponds to Spin(6) / (Spin(4)xU(1)). The compact manifold that represents 4-dim internal symmetry spaceis RP1 x S3, the Shilov boundary of the bounded complex homogeneous domain that corresponds to Spin(6) / (Spin(4)xU(1)). The compact manifold that represents the 8-dim fermion representation space is RP1 x S7, the Shilov boundary of the bounded complex homogeneous domain that corresponds to Spin(10) / (Spin(8)xU(1)). The manifolds RP1 x S3 and RP1 x S7 are homeomorphic to S1 x S3 and S1 x S7, which are untwisted trivial sphere bundles over S1. The corresponding twisted sphere bundles are the generalized Klein bottles Klein(1,3) Bottle and Klein(1,7) Bottle.

The (1,7)-dimensional RP1 x S7 = S1 x S7 = U(1) x S7 spacetime ofthe D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics modelprior to dimensional reduction can berepresented by Quaternionic Projective 2-space QP2.

Atiyah and Berndt say in theirpaper Projective Planes, Serveri Varieties, and Spheres,math.DG/0206135,the S1 x S7 considered as QP2 breaks down into two parts:

- a CP2 acted on by an SU(3), which plays the role of Internal Symmetry Space after dimensional reduction in the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics model; and
- an S1 bundle over the S3 that is the complement S7 \ CP2, which plays the role of (1,3) RP1 x S3 Physical Minkowski Spacetime after dimensional reduction in the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8 VoDou Physics model.

MattiPitkanen has suggested that the global structure of 4-dimensionalSpacetime and Internal Symmetry Space should be given by **8-dimensionalSU(3)**, which decomposes into CP2 base and U(2) fibre, both ofwhich are 4-dimensional, by SU(3) / U(2) = CP2.

**Associative 4-dimensional Spacetime,with Minkowski signature, is topologically U(2) = SU(2)xU(1) = S3 xS1** (the Euclidean signatureversion of Spacetime is S4),

which is consistent with the D4-D5-E6-E7-E8VoDou Physics model Minkowski Spacetime of RP1x S3.

Note that RP1 can be described as an orbifold.

**Coassociative 4-dimensional InternalSymmetry Space is CP2****. **

From Sets to Quarks: Table of Contents: Chapter 1 - Introduction. Chapter 2 - From Sets to Clifford Algebras. Chapter 3 - Octonions and E8 lattices. Chapter 4 - E8 spacetime and particles. Chapter 5 - HyperDiamond Lattices. Chapter 6 - Spacetime and Internal Symmetry Space. Chapter 7 - Feynman Checkerboards. Chapter 8 - Charge = Amplitude to Emit Gauge Boson. Chapter 9 - Mass = Amplitude to Change Direction. Chapter 10 - Protons, Pions, and Physical Gravitons. Appendix A - Errata for Earlier Papers. References.

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