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My father, Frank Dodd Smith, wasa miner. Inside the first TV set ourfamily had (in the 1950s) is now a star map and mineral collection.

Many of minerals were given to me by a Clemson geologist friend ofmy father. My father gave me some of them himself. The followingmaterial on this web page is an edited version of some comments madeby my father in January 1983, only a little more than 3 years beforehe died in 1986.

Frank Dodd Smith - comments on the

History of Mining in BartowCounty, Georgia, U.S.A.

This presentation of my knowledge of the history of the miningindustry of Bartow County is made with the understanding that nochanges will be made without my approval.

The history of the BartowCounty mining industry would not exist without the efforts of theMine Workers who worked long hours for little pay.

Some of the minerals in Bartow Countyare:



The production of these minerals started about 1800. First, itfurnished the several charcoal furnaces that operated in BartowCounty. In the early 1800's, several families moved from Sweden toEmerson, Bartow County, Georgia, to build a plant to produce grayiron (castings), using high grade pig iron from charcoal furnaces.After disagreements with the govenrment of Emerson, Georgia, theymoved their operation to Ironton, Ohio, where it is now a majorindustry.

Mr. Mark A. Cooper built afurance and rolling mill on the Etowah River and was operatingsuccessfully at the start of the Civil War. GeneralSherman of the Union Army destroyed Cooper Iron Works on his wayto Atlanta.

About 1900, there were large iron ore deposits opened throughoutthe district. Railroads were built from the main railroad lines tothe iron deposits. The major producers were:

The output was used by furnaces in Tennessee and Alabama.

In 1939, Fred Knight, Sr ., and Frank Smith built the first ironore washer in Georgia to be built after the Great Depression.

Later, John W. Hodge built a washer and became one of the biggestshippers in the South.

Other miners of iron ore were:



Barytes was first mined in the 1800's, near Allatoona, a town inthe southeast part of Bartow County. Dornicks were hand mined. Theoutside dirt was chipped off and the clean ore was put in bags andshipped to Germany to make barium chemicals. At the outbreak of WorldWar I, barium chemicals from Germany became unavailable, so theAmerican chemical companies were forced to find sources of barite andto build plants. Barite deposits were found in Virginia, Missouri,Tennessee and Georgia. The quality of the Georgia barytes attractedminers from various states.

Among them were:

W. J. Weinman, Bill Peebles and Evans, grandfather of MarshallEvans, purchased Paga Mines & Company, which has been the largestproducer of barite in Bartow County, and, along with New RiversideOchre Company, are now the only producers.

In the 1930's, W. J. Weinman, E. P. Earle, J. M, Neel, and RayDellinger, son-in-law of Will Satterfield, the operator of NewRiverside Ochre Company, started Chemical Products Company to makebarium chemicals. Later, Weinman and Earle sold their interest inChemical Products Corporation to Neel, Dellinger, and Fred Lester;later this company was purchased by J. R. Dellinger and J. R.Dellinger, Jr. Upon retirement of J. R. Dellinger, Jim Dellingerbecame owner and operator of Chemical Products and New RiversideOchre Company. Chemical Products is under the acting supervision ofJ. L. Gray, President and Chemist. This is one of the largestemployers in Bartow County. Paga Mines, under the supervision of W.J. Weinman, ground barytes for the filler, chemical, and oil welldrilling industries. In the 1920's, W. J. Weinman, Evans and Thompsonpurchased an old flour mill with water power and formedThompson-Weinman Company. Thompson was a mineral broker in New YorkCity, Evans was in the mineral business in Charleston, West Virginia.Weinman's father had had a plant in Virginia bleaching Virginiabarytes, so Thompson-Weinman installed equipment in the old flourmill to do the same to Georgia Barytes. They hired a Mr. Quasebarthto operate the plant. They could not bleach Georgia barytes. One dayMr. Weinman was in Birmingham, Alabama, and saw a pile of white rockat a furnace. He stopped and asked what the rock was. It was scrapmarble from the quarries at Sylacauga, Alahama. He purchased acarload and ground it on the mill that he had installed to grindbleached baryte. This was the beginning of the calcium carbonateindustry in the Ur.ited States, which is now one of the majornon-metallic industries in the U. S. The original ball mill was nowon display at the Thompson-Weinman plant near Cartersville. Weinman'sdaughter, Frances Luro, had a home in Cartersville, where her husbandtrained race horses. One of the horses trained was Northern Dancer.Thompson-Weinman Company iswas acquired by Amoco Mineral Division ofStandard Oil Company of Indiana.



Mr. E.P. Earle, a mineral broker of New York City, was on thetrain to Florida when he saw yellow iron oxide in the banks of therailroad cut. He had been importing ochre from Peru for the use ofmaking heavy lineoleum. He found that Georgia ochre was superior tothe Peruvian ochre, so he built a plant at Emerson, Georgia, andnamed it Georgia Peruvian Ochre Company. He acquired other mineralproperties in the district, which he leased to other mines. Mr. Earlelater purchased the Nipissing Mining Company, in Canada, and withfive associates, built the EmpireState Building in New York City. Following the start of theGeorgia Peruvian Ochre Company, these ochre mines and plants werebuilt:



Large tonnages of this iron, with manganese, was shipped to thesteel industry, mainly to supply manganese, which is essential tomaking steel. Most of this large tonnage was made during wartime,when the imports of manganese stopped. Umber is also used to colorconcrete, paint, etc., and is produced by the New Riverside OchreCompany, in addition to their ochre and barytes.



There are large deposits of both types of limestone, high calciumand dolomite. The calcium limestone is used to make cement andaggregate. In the 1800's, the Howard Cement Company produced highquality cement and, about 1960, Marquette Cement Company producedcement and, later, Martin-Marietta opened quarries to furnish theirplant in Atlanta, Georgia. There have been several quarries opened toproduce crushed aggregate.

In the 1800's, a large deposit was opened and plant built to makehigh magnesium lime. It was named Ladd Lime & Stone Company. Mr.Henry Harvey, with Mr. Wilson Hardy, of Rome, and Billy Jackson, ofCartersville, bought the enterprise, which was for years the largestemployer in the mining industry in Bartow County. The lime producedwas ideal for making baking powder and many other chemicals

In the early 1900's, the Hoagland family, owners of Rumford BakingPowder Company, of New Jersey, purchased this plant to insure asource of this type of lime. They sent a Mr. L. J. Backus, of NewYork, to operate this plant. Mr. Harvey's family contributed to thecommunity (his daughter Ann married Dr. Sam Howell, whose son Harveyand grandson Sammy are prominent doctors in Bartow County).



This mineral has contributed much to Bartow County by attractingmany new citizens. The mineral is essential in making steel andchemicals but, after supplying the needs during wartime, the ore wasimported from foreign countries.

Mr. A. O. Granger came from Pennsylvania in the 1800's, aftermining in South America. His family contributed a great deal to thecultural development of this community and to Atlanta. They built thelargest telescope observatory south of the Ohio River. Others whomined manganese were:



The first aluminum made in the U. S. was mined in Bartow and Floydcounties by the present Aluminum Company of America. A local man, Mr.Gibbons, operated these mines and also deposits in Arkansas, wherethe town near the deposits was named for him. He became a topofficial of Alcoa. The American Cyanamid Company mined bauxite tomake alum. Large foreign deposits caused local mining to cease.

[ According to Geological Survey of Georgia Bulletin No. 11, APreliminary Report on the Bauxite Deposits of Georgia, by Thomas L.Watson (1904), "... Bauxite was first discovered in 1821, by thefamous chemist, Berthier, at the Village of Baux, Bouches du Rhone,in Southern France, from which locality the mineral takes its name.... The first discovery of bauxite in America was in 1887, at a pointa few miles northeast of Rome, in Floyd county, Georgia. A fewfragments of the unknown mineral were picked up on the Holland lot,two miles north of the Ridge Valley Iron Company's furnace atHermitage. ... The bauxite fragments were highly ferruginous anddeep-red in color, and were taken by their discoverer, James Holland,to Edward Nichols, President and Acting Chemist of the Ridge ValleyIron Company, thinking they represented an ore of iron. Mr. Nicholsattached no special importance to the find at that time; but, shortlyafterwards, he made a chemical analysis of the fragments. ... Mr.Nichols identified the material as the mineral, bauxite. He brieflydescribed the discovery and occurrence of the mineral in theTransacations of the American Institute of Mining Engineers for 1887.[vol. XVI p. 105] Bauxite mining in the United States had itsbeginning in Georgia, when, in April, 1888, the deposits of themineral on the Holland property, lot 61, 23rd district of Floydcounty, were first opened and worked. The first shipments of the orewere made in May, 18889, to the Pennsylvania Salt Company at Natrona,Penn., and to Greenwich Point, near Philadephia. This lot of ore issaid to have been used for the manufacture of both alum and metallicaluminum. In 1889, 728 tons of the ore from Georgia included thetotal output of bauxite from the United States. ... [The 728 tonswere long tons of 2,240 pounds per ton, and the total value of the728 tons mined in 1889 ws $2,366.] ... In number of deposits[of bauxite], the Hermitage district is the largest in theState [of Georgia]. It includes an area of more than 50square miles, lying between Rome, Kingston and Adairsville, east ofthe Oostanaula rive, and north of the Etowah river. It furtheroccupies the contiguous northeastern and northwestern portions,respectively, of Floyd and Bartow counties. ..."]



In 1923, Father O'Hara, a Catholic priestand geologist, came here looking for all minerals. Among thedeposits he found was a deposit of tripoli in the western part ofBartow County. This is a high grade material, but the deposits inOklahoma and Missouri have been able to furnish this mineral to theabrasive and polishing industry.



Before the start of World War I, all potash used in the U. S. wasimported from Germany. Because of the high potash content of thelocal slate and shale, a plant was built by American Potash Companyin Marietta, Georgia, to produce potash. They had started shippingwhen large and high grade potash deposits were found near Carlsbad,New Mexico, making the venture in Georgia unprofitable. There arehuge reserves of potash shale remaining in Bartow County and shouldbe profitable deposits, if the expense of foreign ore becomes toohigh. The slate has been a major industry in making roofing granules.It was operated for years by the Funkhauser Company and recently byRubberoid and GAF,



These have contributed materially to make brick, roofing tile, andfloor tile. Many of the buildings now standing in Bartow County weremade with brick made from these shales and clays. One ceramic tilecompany, the Universal Ceramic Company, is now making a very highgrade tile at Adairsville, Georgia, in north Bartow County.



Gold was found and mined in Bartow County before the CivilWar.

An English company purchased and mined the Glade property.

A Mr. Tudor of Boston mined at Allatoona after he had becomewealthy by hauling ice from New England to Carribbean Islands. Thelast gold was shipped by Tudor's grandson in the 1930's to a NewJersey smelter, where he received $35.00 per ton for it. This wasbefore the price of gold shot up. This shaft was inundated byAllatoona Lake.



Large deposits of high quality granite have been drilled andshould furnish the Atlanta area after the deposits closer to Atlantahave become inaccessible.



This mineral has been found associated with manganese and iron orein Bartow County. Since there was no analysis made of cobalt in thelarge tonnages of iron ore and manganese shipped over the past 100years, the possibility of commercial tonnage of this essentialmineral is favorable because of the remaining large tonnages of ironand manganese.



This important mineral has recently been found in the Cartersvillemineral district in commercial quantities by Georgia TechResearchers. As this mineral is so important to U. S. industry anddefense, it is possible that this ore will eventually be mined.



Recent geological surveys indicate that below the zone ofweathering throughout the Cartersville Mineral District, which issome 20 miles long and 4 miles wide, there are commercial deposits ofsulfide which contain the following minerals, plus possiblyothers:

There has never been a drill hole to the unweathered zone. All theminerals mined here in the past 100 years have been mined in theweathered zone.



These minerals have been produced throughout the years to supplythe construction industry. Building stone from Pine Log Mountain hasbeen sold throughout the South.



Halloysite, a rare type of kaolin, has been found in the mining ofiron ore and manganese. It is used to make catalysts. It is mined atone location, in Eureka, Utah.



Large tonnages of this serpentine type mineral were found by W. J.Weinman and Frank Smith, but the deposit is now covered by AllatoonaLake.



The mining of this mineral was started by an English firm. Theysold most of it as a fertilizer filler because of its color. Theyalso made a vitrified brick. Both of these uses became obsolete.



Other Bartow County minerals known to have economic possibilitiesare:




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