| GRB SuperNova | CasA | Eta Carinae | SN1993J| Vela X | Geminga |Crab | Diamonds |Neutron Stars and Quark Stars|

Some Cosmic Rays may beproduced in Supernovae.

During 1940-41, a supernova explosion inNGC 4725 was observed at earth. (Kaufmann - Universe (4th ed) -Freeman 1994))

On 28 March1993, supernova SN1993J in spiral galaxy M81, 11 millionlight-years away, was first observed on Earth. According to anarticle by Robert Roy Britt on the Space.comweb site, the 7 January 200 issue of Sciencereported images

showing how SN1993J has expanded from September 1993 to September1994, saying "... Norbert Bartel of York University in Canada andlead author of Science article ... told that ... The stargenerating explosion, known as the progenitor star, was probablyabout 15 times the size of our sun ... Near the end of its life, thestar had burnt all its fuel. ... The implosion generated an enormousshock wave that zoomed to the surface of the star and broke throughon March 28, 1993. Spanish amateur astronomer Francisco Garcia Diazspotted it. Within hours the supernova was billions of times brighterthan our sun. The shock wave fled the scene at 12,427 miles eachsecond (20,000 kps). "After 50 days the supernova has expanded toabout 13 times the size of our planetary system," Bartel said. That'swhen the first image was taken, on April 27, 1993. (The event, beingso far away, actually occurred a long time ago -- the light onlybegan reaching us in 1993.) Even with a resolving power 100 timesbetter than the Hubble telescope (using a global array of radiotelescopes called the Very Long Baseline) no details were yet visibleon the distant object, which lies in a relatively nearby galaxycalled M81, roughly 12 million light-years away. Only the object'ssize could be measured. "After a half year first details becamevisible," Bartel said. "A round shell developed. But the shell wasnot uniformly bright; it was shining in kind of a horseshoe pattern.Furthermore this brightness pattern rotated with time." After twoyears, hot spots appeared around the outer edges. Researchers don'tknow why they occur, but Bartel thinks the shock wave may be catchingup with knots of other material blown off the star thousands of yearsbefore it exploded. By this time, the shock wave's speed haddecreased, and the deceleration itself increased with time. And bythe time of the final image, on June 3, 1998, the shock wave moved at5,282 miles-per-second (8,500 kps). ...".

According to a 30June 2000 CNN article: "... Hubbleimages ...[showed]... that a gamma-rayburst and subsequent supernova occurred in an active star-formingregion in one of the ... spiral arms ... in a galaxy only 125 millionlight years away ... One day after the burst on April 25, 1998, anunusually bright supernova took place in the exact same location....

... This galaxy ... is actively forming stars in numerous gasclouds. The center image shows a star-forming area in one of thearms. The ...[right]... image shows the gamma-ray burst foundwithin the area. ...".


According to aChandra website article: "... A new 14 hour Chandraobservation ... Observation time: 50,000 sec on 2000 Jan 30-31 ... ofthe supernova remnant Cassiopeia A has given the best map yet ofheavy elements ejected in a supernova explosion.

Upper left: Broadband X-ray image of Cassiopeia A (Cas A) Upperright: Image made by X rays from silicon ions. Lower left: Image madeby X rays from calcium ions. Lower right: Image made by X rays fromiron ions. All images are 8.5 arc minutes on a side (corresponding to28.2 light years at a distance of 11,000 light years).

These images are designed to show the distribution of some of theelements ejected in the explosion that produced Cas A. The elementsare part of a gas that has a temperature of about 50 million degreesCelsius. The colors represent intensity of X rays, with yellow themost intense, then red, purple, and green.

The broadband image, which shows all the X rays detected from CasA, is more symmetric than the others. This could be due to thepresence of X rays from synchrotron radiation by extremely highenergy particles spiraling in the magnetic field of the remnant, orto shock waves traveling through material puffed off thousands ofyears before the supernova.

The silicon image shows a bright, broad jet breaking out of theupper left side of the remnant, and faint streamers in an oppositedirection. This jet could be due to an asymmetry in theexplosion.

The calcium image is similar to the silicon image, but less brightand clumpier.

The iron image shows significant differences from other images.Since iron is the heaviest element shown, these maps support thesuggestion that the layers of the star were overturned either beforeor during the explosion. ...".

According to a 30June 2000 article by Dan Sorid: "... iron, the heaviestof the three elements, appears to have been expelled the farthest.... "The model they had for this kind of explosion is that the star,before it explodedÖ, built up an onionskin layer with heavyelements [on the inside of the star]," ... Wallace Tucker...[of]... the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Center in Cambridge... said. "Somehow the iron got out ahead of everything." ... Anothersurprise is the way the star seems to be ejecting material mostlythrough a single jet, which appears on the upper-left of thepictures. ...".


Has Eta Carinae gone SuperNova ?

What would that do toEarth?


Eta Cairnae can be seen from Earth in the southern sky betweenAlpha Centauri and Vela X, with the SouthernCross lying between it and Alpha Centauri:

In the February 2000 issue of Astronomy,Robert Zimmerman writes: "... Eta Carinae ... has started brighteningagain, and no one knows why or where it might lead.

With about 120 times the mass of the sun, it comes close to thetheoretical limit of how big a star can be. And although it lies7,500 light-years away, the star glittered more brilliantly than anyother star in the Galaxy between approximately 1835 and 1855. Duringthis 20-year Great Eruption, it spit out two to three suns' worth ofmaterial. ... in 1994, the Hubble Space Telescope ... could look atthe nebulosity surrounding the star and see its shape and detailedstructure. ...

... The most obvious features in the Hubble images are the twolarge and grayish bipolar lobes, shaped somewhat like an hourglass.With a total mass somewhere around three times that of the sun, theirglow comes mainly from starlight radiated by Eta Carinae thatreflects off the ubiquitous dust in the lobes. Ejected from the starduring the 1843 eruption, each lobe is expanding outward at the rateof about 1.5 million miles per hour. ... the lobes have expanded in150 years to span about four trillion miles, or some 0.7 light-year.... Less obvious but also seen first in the Hubble images was thestrange equatorial disk tilted between 52° and 60° to ourline of sight and about 90° to the two lobes. Faintly resemblinga ceiling fan with many blades, the disk consists of many curiousobjects moving at a wide range of speeds. Three mysterious blobsappear embedded within the disk only a few light-days (about fiftybillion miles) from Eta. Flying outward from the star at about100,000 miles per hour, all three seem arranged around the outsideedge of the equatorial disk's largest fan (called the Paddle andvisible as the triangular-shaped bright area above and to the rightof the Homunculus's center). Astronomers don't yet know what causedthese blobs to erupt from the star so asymmetrically, though theirspeed and distance from the star suggest they were ejected in 1889.Within the Paddle itself, however, several small regions move at muchslower speeds, as low as 30,000 miles per hour. These relativelysluggish speeds imply that the features were ejected from Eta severalhundred years ago, long before the eruptions of the 19th century. Theequatorial disk also contains several mysterious and fast-movingjets, or "bullets" as some scientists have labeled them. The northernjet is shooting away from the star at a tremendous velocity,estimated as high as 3.4 million miles per hour.... pushing its waythrough the interstellar medium of nitrogen gas that surrounds EtaCarinae and was ejected in a much earlier, unrecorded eruption.Although some scientists believe that the jet's origin is linked tothe 1889 eruption, others contend that it - along with most of theequatorial disk - formed during the Great Eruption of 1843. ...

... X-rays reveal gas glowing at millions of degrees;

the horseshoe-shaped ring spans two light-years, while Eta inselfapparently lies hidden in the central blue cloud ... (NASA/CXC/SAO )... When you point a telescope at Eta Carinae, you are looking downthe length of our Galaxy's Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm, whichtraces a corkscrew around the galactic center and is home to some ofthe Milky Way's most massive stars and most glorious nebulae. In suchspiral arms stars are born. Eta Carinae lies embedded in a densegiant molecular cloud only a few million years old, about 425light-years across, and containing the mass of 10,000 suns.

Anglo-Australian Telescope Board

Moreover, surrounding Eta Carinae's immediate environs are vastclouds of nitrogen and dust processed from hydrogen by the star's ...nuclear engine. ... massive stars like Eta Carinae ... not onlyprocess huge amounts of hydrogen fuel into more complex atoms such ascarbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and iron, they also spray it out into theinterstellar medium, accounting for a large percentage of thematerial found in the dense molecular clouds that surround them.Then, when such majestic stars go supernova, the explosion sweeps upthis surrounding debris, forming a shock wave within which eventuallyflower the longer living but less massive ordinary stars - stars suchas our sun. ...

... Eta Carinae ... belongs to a rare class of stars calledLuminous Blue Variables, or LBVs, objects whose temperature and massapproach the absolute maximum believed possible for a star. EtaCarinae appears to tip the scales at a mass 100 to 120 times largerthan the sun while its surface broils at a temperature that rangesbetween about 22,000° and 50,000° Fahrenheit. Compare thisto the surface temperature of the sun, which comes in around10,000° Fahrenheit. At its coolest, Eta Carinae also becomesmost compact - though its size would still be large enough to swallowthe orbit of Mercury if it replaced the sun. When the star'stemperature rises, its radius swells and would reach the orbit ofMars or beyond. During the Great Eruption, the star probably expandedto a diameter of two billion miles, the size of Saturn's orbit.Moreover, astronomers think that Eta Carinae has one of the densestsolar winds known, blowing off about 0.003 solar mass per year, somesix trillion trillion tons, or two Earth masses each day. At thisrate the sun would evaporate in a little more than three centuries.... blue variables ... are thought to be a short-term transitionalstage in the life of stars, spanning a mere 25,000 years or so. ...As the star sheds mass it slowly evolves from a blue supergiant to aWolf-Rayet star, thought to be one of the last stages that starsreach before they die. Such stars have lost more than half totwo-thirds of their original mass, have exhausted their hydrogenfuel, and now burn other, more complex atoms in their nuclearfurnaces. Their next and final act, astronomers believe, is toexplode as supernovae. ...

... "Without question, the central star has brightened since 1997by roughly a factor of two," notes astrophysicist Jon Morse of theUniversity of Colorado, whose Hubble images in June 1999 confirmedthis brightening. And if the brightening trend continues, Morse addsthat "in two years we will not be able to take an image with Hubblewithout saturating the camera. [Eta Carinae] will be toobright." ... The brightening is even more puzzling because it isoccurring across all wavelengths. If the star were merely ejecting anouter shell in response to radiation pressure, the brightening wouldhappen only at visible wavelengths, with the star's outer layerscooling and its output shifting from the ultraviolet to the optical.An increase in brightness across the entire electromagnetic spectrumimplies that Eta is growing intrinsically brighter, a possibility notheory predicted. Moreover, this brightening implies that the star'sluminosity may soon overwhelm its gravity, once again causing thestar to become unstable and erupt as it did in the last century. ...[Michael Corcoran of the Universities Space ResearchAssociation] recently said that "The death of Eta Carinae islikely to be one of the most explosive events ever experienced in theGalaxy." When such massive stars go supernova, the energyreleased can be so powerful that it equals and possibly exceeds thatof the rest of the Galaxy. ...".


Since photons and neutrinos from a SuperNova explosion of EtaCarinae would take about 7,500 years to get to Earth,

could Eta Carinae have gone SuperNova about 7,500 yearsago, so that the brightening we are seeing is just the gentle breezeimmediately preceding the violent storm ?


What will happen on Earth when Eta Carinae goesSuperNova?

In astro-ph/0110162,Arnon Dar and A. DeRujula say: "... Eta Carinae, the most massive andluminous star known in our galaxy ... more than 100 times as massiveand 5 million times as luminous as the Sun ... is rapidly boilingmatter off its surface. At any time its core could collapse into ablack hole, which may result in a gamma-ray burst (GRB)that can devastate life on Earth. ...

... Should the violent end of Eta Carinae, ... only D = 2 kpcaway, emit in our direction a GRB similar to that of the mostenergetic GRB ... (GRB 990123), theatmosphere of Earth facing the star would be subject to a totalenergy deposition:

E_gamma / 4 pi (D_L)^2 = 4 x 10^9 erg cm^(-2)

within seconds. This energy release is akin to that of thesimultaneous explosions in the upper atmosphere of one-kiloton of TNTper km^2 , over the whole hemisphere facing Eta Carinae. This woulddestroy the ozone layer, create enormous shocks going down in theatmosphere, lit up huge fires and provoke giant global storms.

If the energy of GRBs in TeV gamma-rays, as indicated by variousexperiments ... , is [about] 100 times larger than in thesub-MeV domain, the energy deposition ... would be correspondinglylarger. Moreover, the interactions of the TeV -rays in the upperatmosphere would produce a lethal dose of highly penetrating muons,destroying life on the surface, underground and underwater. ... thetotal muon fluence at ground level expected from a GRB from thesupernova death of Eta Carinae is [about] 5 x 10^10 cm^(-2)(the roughly linear dependence on the -ray energy makes this resultsensitive only to the total deposited energy). The energy depositionby these high-energy muons in biological materials is [about]2.5 x 10^5 erg g^(-1) , which is about ten times the lethal dose forhuman beings: the whole-body dose from penetrating ionizing radiationresulting in 50% mortality in 30 days ...

... Auspiciously, recent observations indicate that the GRBsare narrowly beamed in cones along the rotational axis of theprogenitor star. In the case of Eta Carinae the GRBs will notpoint to us, but will be ravaging to life on planets in ourgalaxy that happen to lie within the two beaming cones. ...

... The average energy output of a GRB is 5 times smaller thanthat of GRB 990123 ... The average distance of galactic GRBs fromEarth, assuming they have the same spatial distribution as supernovaremnants, is [about] 8 kpc. Gamma rays alone from such"typical" GRBs can barely cause major mass extinctions, since thefrequency of such GRBs is too small to explain a mean rate of massextinctions of once in [about] 100 My, observed in thegeological records ... However, if GRBs are produced in supernovaexplosions by highly relativistic jets of "cannonballs", as suggestedby the striking success of the Cannonball Model ofGRBs in explaining their afterglows ... the jetted cannonballsalso produce highly beamed cosmic rays (CRs) by ionizing, sweeping upand accelerating the particles of the interstellar medium (ISM). SuchCRs from galactic GRBs are much more devastating than theirgamma-rays. ... the CR beam sweeps away the magnetic field along itsway and follows a straight ballistic trajectory through theinterstellar medium. (The corresponding argument, when applied to thedistant cosmological GRBs, leads to the opposite conclusion: no CRsfrom distant GRBs escort the gamma rays in their voyage.) The beam ofmulti-TeV cosmic rays accompanying a galactic GRB is deadly for lifeon Earth-like planets. ... The lethal dosages for other vertebratesand insects can be a few times or as much as a factor 20 larger[than for humans], respectively. Hence, CRs from galacticGRBs can produce a lethal dose of atmospheric muons for most animalspecies on Earth. Because of the large range of muons ... their fluxis lethal, even hundreds of metres underwater and underground, forCRs arriving from well above the horizon. Thus, unlike othersuggested extrater- restrial extinction mechanisms, the CRs ofgalactic GRBs can also explain massive extinctions deep underwaterand underground. ...

... The mean rate of massive life extinctions by jets fromGRBs, per life-supporting planet in galaxies like ours, is once in100 million years, comparable to the rate ofmajor extinctions observed in the geological records of ourplanet.

GRB extinctions also provide an answer to Fermi'squestion about alien visitors: "Where are they?" ... even ifadvanced civilizations are not self-destructive, GRBs can exterminatethe most evolved species on any given planet or interstellar vehicleat a mean rate of once every 100 My. Consequently, there may be nonearby aliens having evolved long enough to be capable ofcommunicating with us, or pay us a visit. ...".

[ My personal opinion is that over 100 million years, anadvanced civilization would have time enough to colonize enough ofour Galaxy that some colonies (in fact, most colonies) would surviveany such narrowly beamed GRB extinction radiation. ]


In our Milky Way galaxy, about 800 light years away and about11,400 years ago, a supernovaexploded in the constellation Vela.

The Distance to the Vela Supernova Remnant was measured byCha, Sembach, andDanks, who reported in astro-ph/9902230 that "... The analysis ofa significant sample of O and B stars in the direction of the VelaSNR has enabled a direct distance measurement of 250 +/-30 pc, with aconservative upper limit of 390 +/- 100 pc. ...". They also state thefollowing attributes of Vela SNR at 250 +/- 30 pc:

People on earth saw the explosion about 11,000 years ago as a starof magnitude -10, as bright as a 7-day old Moon.

Johnston, vanStraten, Kramer, and Bailes, in their paper astro-ph/0101146,say:

"... We present high time resolution observations of single pulses from the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833&endash;45) made with a baseband recording system at observing frequencies of 660 and 1413 MHz. We have discovered two startling features in the 1413 MHz single pulse data.
  • The first is the presence of giant micro-pulses which are confined to the leading edge of the pulse profile. One of these pulses has a peak flux density in excess of 2500 Jy, more than 40 times the integrated pulse peak.
  • The second new result is the presence of a large amplitude gaussian component on the trailing edge of the pulse profile. This component can exceed the main pulse in intensity but is switched on only relatively rarely. Fluctutation spectra reveal a possible periodicity in this feature of 140 pulse periods. Unlike the rest of the profile, this component has low net polarization and emits predominantly in the orthogonal mode. This feature appears to be unique to the Vela pulsar.

We have also detected microstructure in the Vela pulsar for the first time. These same features are present in the 660 MHz data. We suggest that the full width of the Vela pulse profile might be as large as 10 ms but that the conal edges emit only rarely. ...".

According to Wijersand Sugurdsson, in their paper astro-ph/9704225, the Velasupernova pulsar may have had a binary companion neutron star that isnow ploughing a channel through thesupernova remnant cloud, creating an X-rayfeature that is asymmetric with respect to the supernova remnantcloud.

The neutron star binary companion to the Vela supernova pulsarmay, as it is a neutron star, be the remnant neutron star of thesupernova of about 3 to 10 million years ago that formed the GumNebula, which now from Earth looks like a shell with radius about 20degrees. In comparison (see Kaufmann - Universe (4th ed) - Freeman1994), the sun and moon each cover about half a degree.

Now, the Vela supernova remnant is expanding into the old remnantof the Gum supernova.

According to Timothy Ferris (Coming of age in the Milky Way, William Morrow & Co. 1988) the Sumerians, who were living on the plains of the Tigris-Euphrates, identified the supernova with their god Ea, who invented writing and agriculture, and  the Egyptians identified it with their goddess Seshat, the principal wife of Thoth, and may have represented it by the Great Pyramid at Giza.   According to the book An Adventure in Multidimensional Space by Koji Miyazaki (Wiley 1986), the city plan of Beijing has 5 elements: a square Altar of Earth in the North; a square Palace Museum in the Center; a circular Altar of the Sun in the East; a semicircular Altar of the Moon in the West; and a circular Altar of Heaven in the South.  Could the circular Altar of Heaven have been located in the South to correspond to the Southern sky where the Vela X supernova had appeared? 
Could the Flaming Pearl sought by the Dragon (from Palace Museum Peking, by Weng and Boda (Abrams 1982))represent the Vela X supernova?  VELA X and COMETS: The Vela X supernova may have roughly coincided with the primary breakup of a large parent comet of Comet Encke and the Taurid meteors.  Could radiation from the Vela X supernova have heated the dark surface of comets in the Oort cloud, creating jets of gas and dust,  so perturbing the orbits of the comets, and causing the large Encke/Taurid parent comet to enter the inner solar system and break up when it encountered more intense solar radiation? If Sitchin's Sumerian Solar System body Nibiru, with period (as known to the Sumerians) of roughly 3600 years, were a Comet, then maybe it could have been Comet Hale-Bopp (a conjecture that came from e-mail discussion with Ron Nye).  Since the last period of Comet Hale-Bopp was about 4200 years, if its preceding two periods were each about 3600 years, then Hale-Bopp would have had a perihelion about 11,400 years ago, which is about the time of the Vela X supernova.  Therefore, it is possible that Comet Hale-Bopp could have been affected by supernova Vela X.  VELA X and the SUN: Could radiation from the Vela X supernova, particularly neutrinos, have changed rates of Solar nuclear reactions involving nuetrinos and so have increased the Sun's luminosity? Could such increased Solar luminosity have perturbed the comets in the Oort cloud?  VELA X and the EARTH'S CLIMATE:  Could Vela X, by either dust or impacts from comet/meteor fragments of the Encke/Taurid parent comet, or altered Solar luminosity, have affected the Earth's climate, contributing to the melting of the glaciers at the beginning of the Holocene Age? In his book Rogue Asteroids and Doomsday Comets (John Wiley, 1995), Duncan Steel says a majority view of the consequences to Earth of major comet/meteor impact is that:1 - for weeks, radiated heat (and impact heat) would heat up     the Earth, causing global fires, which in turn would     put a lot of soot and CO2 into the atmosphere;  2 - for years, atmospheric soot, dust, and pulverized rock would     reflect sunlight, causing a Cosmic Winter.  3 - for thousands of years, atmospheric CO2 would heat the Earth     through the greenhouse effect.   

The Gemingasupernova,

perhaps then 300 light years away from Earth, could have exploded about 340,000 years ago, the time of the Neanderthals, with radiation reaching earth shortly thereafter and shockwave reaching Earth about 35,000 years ago, the time of the Cro-Magnons.

According to a 10 May 2001 PhysicsWebarticle:

"... (J. W Beck et al 2001 Science to appear) ...Beck and colleagues tested slices of a half-metre long stalagmite that grew between 45 000 and 11 000 years ago in a cave in the Bahamas. Stalagmites are calcium carbonate deposits left behind when carbon dioxide evaporates out of cave seepage water. They found that carbon-14 concentrations were twice their modern level during that period. Current records of the levels of carbon-14 in the atmosphere only cover the last 16 thousand years, and this discovery extends those records a further 30 thousand years. Galactic cosmic rays create most of the carbon-14 in our atmosphere, while solar cosmic rays generate a smaller fraction. The Earth is partially shielded from galactic cosmic rays by its own magnetic field and the solar magnetic field, which fluctuates as the solar cycle proceeds. But these effects are predictable and are thought to have changed little in the last million years - which means they cannot explain the glut of carbon-14. Evidence from North Atlantic sediments suggests that the Earth's magnetic field may have dipped around 40 thousand years ago, but this would still only account for - at best - half of the observed peak in carbon-14 concentrations. Beck's team concludes that either a jump in the cosmic ray flux or a fundamental change in the carbon cycle must have produced the sudden increase of carbon-14. The team speculates that a supernova shock wave could have produced a flurry of cosmic rays. "Weaker circulation of the oceans - which are the biggest reservoirs of carbon on Earth - would explain the excess of carbon-14", David Richards, joint team leader, told PhysicsWeb. If carbon-14 is carried more slowly from the surface to the depths of the ocean, he explains, the carbon-14 content of the atmosphere will rise. ... Carbon dating is a mainstay of geology and archaeology - but an enormous peak discovered in the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere between 45 thousand and 11 thousand years ago casts doubt on the biological carbon cycle that underpins the technique. ... ".

The Geminga supernova could have created the LocalBubble,

which is roughly elliptical in shape and whose size is on theorder of about 300 light years across its short axis and 1,000 lightyears across (1 light year = 63,240 AU). (See Kaufmann, Astronomy(4th ed), Freeman 1994.),


could be responsible for the kneeof the Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum.


Near Geminga, in the region of the anticenter of the Milky Way, is the 


Here is a Chandra X-ray picture of the Crab Nebula: 
The Crab Nebula and its pulsar 
were created by a supernova that exploded about 7,500 years ago. Since it is about 6,500 light years away, it was not seen on Earth until about 1,000 years ago, on 4 July 1054 AD.   

Supernovae produce Diamonds:


According to a paper by Stephen E. Haggerty in Science 285 (6August 1999) 851-860: "... On final implosion and rebounding, theoutermost envelopes are blasted into the interstellar media. It is inthese outermost expanding and cooling envelopes of type I and type IISN that nanodiamonds nucleate, perhaps a month or so after a SNevent. This is shown schematically by the inset, which is an electronimage of a presolar diamond from the Murchison meteorite. ...[The above image is adapted] courtesy of EncyclopaediaBrittanica, Inc. Copyright Encyclopaedia Brittanica Yearbook ofScience and the Future 1989. ...". Diamondtetrahedral structure is shared by waterice.


Neutron Stars and Quark Stars

According to a10 April 2002 AP article in TheNew York Times:

"... An orbiting X-ray telescope has found two bizarre objects that may form a new star class ... The objects, called RXJ1856 and 3C58, were thought to be neutron stars, but observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope show that they are too small and too cold to be standard neutron stars. ... RXJ1856 has a temperature of about 1.2 million degrees, too cool for a neutron star, and a diameter of about seven miles, much smaller than the standard. Yet the measurements show that the object has the mass and X-ray emissions of a larger neutron star. ... Conventional theory tells us this object should be a neutron star, comprised entirely of neutrons, with a diameter of about 12 to 20 miles in size ...The smaller size suggests that the object is much more dense, perhaps dense enough to shatter its neutrons and set free the quarks they contain. ...

... 3C58, the neutron star remnant of a supernova observed in the year 1181 by Chinese and Japanese astronomers, ...[was found]... to be much cooler than expected. ... for a 820-year-old star, the temperature should be a little under 2 million degrees (3.6 million degrees Fahrenheit) and the surface should be glowing in X-rays and emitting about four times as much energy per second as the sun ... observations show that the temperature is far lower than that and the radiation is down by at least a factor of ten. ... in a neutron star, theory predicts a density equal to about a billion tons per teaspoon of matter ... even this density is not enough to squeeze (heat) out fast enough to produce the cool star that we see. ... the astronomers conclude the density of 3C58 is higher than a neutron star and may reach three to five times the density of nuclear matter, forming a new state of matter. ...

... the findings ... are consistent with the theory that neutrons in a star can be broken apart under extreme density to form a smaller, quark star. ...".



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